Papers by Author: Hideo Awaji

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Authors: Uraiwan Leela-adisorn, Takuya Matsunaga, Seong Min Choi, Sawao Honda, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: Nickel dispersed alumina matrix nanocomposites were fabricated using a novel soaking method. Secondary particles were introduced into the nano-pores of a porous matrix grains by a soaking method, such that γ-alumina powder was soaked in nickel nitrate solution under vacuum. During pre-calcination, nickel oxide particles were created inside of the nano-pores of γ-alumina. The alumina powders were then reduced under hydrogen atmosphere to obtain nano-sized metallic nickel embedded in γ-alumina grains. The alumina-nickel composite powders were sintered by pulse electric current sintering (PECS) technique with α-alumina seeds. The maximum strength of the alumina-nickel nanocomposites was 984 MPa after sintering at 1,450 °C with α-alumina seeds, where the specimen size was 2210 mm3. The maximum fracture toughness was 5.5 MPa·m1/2 after sintering at 1,350 °C with seeds measured by the single edge V-notched beam (SEVNB) method.
Authors: Hideo Awaji, Seong Min Choi
Abstract: Intra-type nanocomposites, in which nanosized second-phase particles are embedded within matrix grains, generate dislocations around the dispersed nanoparticles. The intra-type nanostructure induces a thermal expansion mismatch between the matrix and the dispersed particles, which will yield nanoscale stress distribution around the particles and generate lattice defects, such as dislocations. The dislocations of ceramics can be generated at elevated temperatures, become sessile dislocations at room temperature, and serve as nanocrack nuclei in highly stresses fields, e.g. at a main crack tip. The frontal process zone size ahead of a crack tip is expanded due to creation of nanocracks and hence the fracture toughness is improved. Annealing after sintered nanocomposites is important in controlling the dislocation activities. Appropriate annealing will disperse dislocations into the matrix grains. However, dislocations are sensitive to temperature, and higher temperature or longer annealing time result in dislocation disappearance and cause the reduction of the strength and fracture toughness of nanocomposites. In this study, commercially available γ-alumina agglomerated powder with high porosity was used to create the intra-type nanostructure. Nickel nitrate solution was infiltrated into nanopores of the γ-alumina agglomerates in vacuum. The alumina/nickel composite powder following reduction in hydrogen atmosphere was sintered using a pulse electric current sintering method. The volume fraction of nickel was about 3 vol %. After appropriate annealing, the highest fracture toughness was obtained to be 7.6 MPam1/2, which is two times higher than that of monolithic alumina.
Authors: Hideo Awaji, Chun Hong Chen, Nobuyuki Kishi
Abstract: Although porous ceramics are materials with high potential for helping conserve the environment, the characteristics of pore-related mechanical properties have not yet been examined sufficiently. The R-curve behavior of porous ceramics was estimated using the crack stabilizer technique developed by Nojima et al. Also, the critical frontal process zone (CFPZ) size for porous ceramics was estimated from the strength and fracture toughness of the materials used. The results revealed that the R-curve behavior was almost flat in porous ceramics, in contrast with a steeply rising R-curve behavior for porous silicon carbide observed previously, and that the CFPZ size of porous ceramics was larger than that of dense ceramics. A schematic explanation for the crack extension in porous materials was presented to discuss the R-curve behavior of porous ceramics.
Authors: Chun Hong Chen, Satoshi Ishiguro, Sawao Honda, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: Based on the FGM concept, laminated alumina tube with a tailored porosity gradient along the radial direction has been successfully fabricated by the lamination method in the centrifugal molding technique. Experiments were performed with colloidally processed alumina powder and pore-former agent. The powder mixture was made into slurry in water media and the tubes were cast using a stainless steel mold. The porosity profile was designed with the presence of PMMA particles as pore-former agent and the nature of porosity was investigated by microstructure observations. The bimodal pore structure of the tubes was constructed from large spherical pores about 10 μm formed by burning-out the pore-former agent and small sub-micron pores caused by the lower sintering temperature. The fracture behavior of porous tubes with tailored porosity gradient was investigated using the O-ring compression testing. The failure behavior was divided into two types depending on the pore-former agent. The air permeability and fracture behavior were independent of the lamination process. The influence of the porosity gradient on the fracture strength was investigated and the results showed there was a reduction in fracture strength with increase in the laminate number, and the minimum strength was found in continuous graded tubes.
Authors: Shinobu Hashimoto, Sawao Honda, Hideo Awaji, Koichiro Fukuda
Abstract: Mechanical destruction of acicular asbestos has been carried out as a process for decontamination. The dehydration reaction of asbestos occurred at 600°C and has been completed for 2 h at that temperature. This dehydration reaction of asbestos led to weakening of the mechanical properties of asbestos. After grinding, the microstructure of asbestos appeared no acicular shape. Further, this technique could be applied to asbestos-containing cement board. The spent cement board has about 10-20 mass% of asbestos (chrysotile: Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and 5 mm thickness was used. After heating at 600°C for 2 h and grinding, the microstructure of the sample also appeared no acicular shape. Thus it was cleared that heating at 600°C and then grinding treatment for asbestos (chrysotile) has a grate important effect of mechanical and chemical destruction of asbestos in both cases of free asbestos and asbestos-containing cement board.
Authors: Seong Min Choi, Uraiwan Leela-adisorn, Sawao Honda, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: Intra-type structure of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) can improve the mechanical properties of ceramic materials. In this work, we used γ-alumina as a matrix including nano-pore for fabricating alumina/silicon carbide composites using pressure-less sintering and pulse electric current sintering (PECS) techniques. We added α-alumina as a seed in order to improve densification of this commercially available γ-alumina. The mixture was sintered from 1250 to 1450 by pressure-less sintering and PECS techniques. Densification of the specimen sintered by pressure-less sintering is very difficult and bulk density of the specimen sintered at 1450 showed lower than 3.0 g/cc. In the case of the PECS technique, the density was improved to 3.8 g/cc in seed added specimen sintered at 1450. Maximum Vickers hardness and maximum fracture strength were obtained 17 GPa and 500 MPa for the seed added specimens sintered at 1450, respectively.
Authors: Sawao Honda, Hiroaki Tanaka, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: Thermal shock is a mechanism often leading to failure of ceramic materials that may occur during rapid heating or cooling. These tests were performed in order to compare the thermal shock resistance of ceramic materials by cooling with that of the heating method and hence to evaluate parameters such as thermal shock strength (R1c) and thermal shock fracture toughness (R2c). During the present study, thermal shock resistance of alumina and mullite ceramics was estimated experimentally and theoretically using the thermal shock parameters. The critical thermal stress at the onset of thermal shock fracture was calculated using fracture time, which is measured by an acoustic emission. Results show that thermal shock parameters of alumina specimens decreased with increasing temperature of fracture point. This effect can be attributed to the temperature dependence of the thermal properties. The experimental values of thermal shock parameters evaluated by IRH and WFC techniques were in good agreement at the temperature of fracture point. The thermal shock parameters enabled the definition of a unified thermal shock resistance of ceramics, which is independent of the nature of the testing techniques.
Authors: Chun Hong Chen, K. Takita, Satoshi Ishiguro, Sawao Honda, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: The porous alumina tube with pore gradient along the radial direction was successfully fabricated, where PMMA particles were used as pore former agent. The specimen was expected as a filter subjected to high temperatures. Alumina and PMMA particle were mixed with water to form aqueous slurry, compacted using centrifugal molding technique. The green body was dried in partial vacuum atmosphere, calcinated at 273 K to remove the organic component, sintered at 1623 K to obtain sintered porous a-alumina tubes. The control on the pore gradient of porous tubes was attempted by two ways; lamination and continuous methods. The microstructure observation showed that the inner part of the tubes had higher porosity than the outer part irrespective of the method used. Porous alumina tubes were characterized by microstructure observation, porosity and air permeability. The binary pores of 10µm and submicron in diameter were visible, which were formed by the burning-out PMMA particles and lower sintering temperature, respectively. The influence of PMMA amount on the pore morphology of the tubes was investigated. Fracture strength was carried out by the O-ring diametral compression testing. An analytical formula subject to the diametral testing was introduced with considering the porosity gradient. The correlations between the fracture strength and pore gradient were investigated, where a reduction in fracture strength was observed with the increase in laminated layers, and minimum strength was found in continuous porous tubes.
Authors: K. Sato, Sawao Honda, T. Nishikawa, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: Porous NiZrO2 has been widely used as anode in SOFC. However, it has been reported that there was reduction in cell performance at high temperature since Ni grains in the porous Ni ZrO2 sintered during cell operation. In this study, NiOZrO2 composite powders in which NiO powder were covered with ZrO2 particles were prepared with controlled microstructure of porous NiZrO2 which can prevent sintering of Ni grains during cell operation. NiOZrO2 composite powders (HNZ) were prepared using NiO powder of high specific surface area and ZrO2 sol of average particle size of 50 nm by ball milling (sol-coating method). SEM and EPMA analysis of prepared NiOZrO2 composite powders showed that NiO particles were covered with ZrO2 particles. The crystallite phases, crystallite sizes, BET specific surface area of NiOZrO2 composite powders and porosities of fabricated porous NiZrO2 were characterized. SEM and EPMA analysis showed that ZrO2 was distributed around Ni of a few μm range in the porous Ni ZrO2 (HNZ) fabricated by the sol-coating method. Mechanical properties of porous NiZrO2 (HNZ) are required to be improved.
Authors: Seong Min Choi, Takuya Matsunaga, Sung Ho Cheon, Sawao Honda, Shinobu Hashimoto, Hideo Awaji
Abstract: To improve fracture strength and fracture toughness in ceramic materials, we focused our attention on an intra-type structure of nanocomposites. We proposed new processing method for fabricating intra-type nanocomposites. In this work, Al2O3/Ni nanocomposites were fabricated using a soaking method and sintered by PECS(Pulse Electric Current Sintering) method. We also estimated seed effects on this system. Seeded nanocomposites showed high fracture strength and higher fracture toughness than non-seeded nanocomposites and monolithic alumina. The fracture strength of the seeded nanocomposites was more than 800MPa in all sintering temperature range. The maximum value of the fracture toughness was 5.5 MPa⋅m1/2 for the specimen sintered at 1350°C. The sintered specimens with high fracture strength and high fracture toughness were annealed from 800°C to 1000°C for 0 to 10 min. The specimen annealed at 800°C for 5 min showed the highest fracture toughness of 7.6 MPa⋅m1/2. This value is two times higher than that of the monolithic alumina.
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