Papers by Author: J. Gil Sevillano

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Authors: P. Álvarez, C. Lesch, Wolfgang Bleck, Hélène Petitgand, Joachim Schöttler, J. Gil Sevillano
Abstract: A novel thermal treatment, rapid transformation annealing (RTA), has been applied to six different cold rolled low-carbon (LC) steel sheets with the aim of refining their microstructure. The process involves rapid heating to just above the austenite (g) to ferrite (a) transformation temperature and subsequent rapid cooling to room temperature. Grain sizes around 2 µm in two different Nb-Ti HSLA steels, 5 µm in a Ti-LC steel and 6 µm in a plain LC (0.037%C) steel have been produced using fast cooling rates (200°C/s). Non-equiaxed structures are obtained in a Nb-Ti HSIF steel and in a plain LC (0.135%C) (CM) steel due to their higher Mn content. However, very fine equiaxed grains (2 µm) are obtained by rapid intercritical annealing (RIA) in the CM steel. Irrespective of the microalloying concept, the grain growth of recrystallized a grains before their transformation was inhibited in CM and in both HSLA steels. This inhibition is connected with the overlapping of a recrystallization and a-g transformation processes which is essential in order to achieve extreme grain refinement either by RTA or RIA.
Authors: F. de las Cuevas, Mónica Reis, A. Ferraiuolo, G. Pratolongo, L. Pentti Karjalainen, Jon Alkorta, J. Gil Sevillano
Abstract: The grain size dependence of the tensile properties of a TWIP steel has been determined for a wide range of grain sizes obtained by grain growth after complete recrystallization of cold rolled material. The near-linear stress-strain behaviour typical of either TWIP steels or other materials that deform by twinning has been observed, the work hardening rate being larger for the smaller grain sizes. The Hall-Petch slope increases as a function of strain, from 350 MPa μm1/2 for the yield stress to 630 MPa μm1/2 for the maximum uniform strain in the tensile tests, ε  0.40. Profuse twinning is observed in deformed specimens by means of FIB-ISE.
Authors: J. Gil Sevillano, D. González, J.M. Martínez-Esnaola
Abstract: BCC wires macroscopically deformed by axisymmetric elongation (wire drawing) develop an intense <011> fibre texture and exhibit a characteristic non-uniform deformation of the grains evident in transverse sections (grain curling or “Van Gogh sky structure”). The extraordinary grain morphology induced by the <011> fibre texture is also accompanied by a peculiar constant strain hardening rate in single-phase BCC wires (exponentially increasing in case of BCC containing composite wires) that allows to reach very high strengths. Here we present a calculation of the elastoplastic axial elongation of such an aggregate of BCC grains with the ideal <011> fibre texture, using a slip-gradient dependent large-strain crystal plasticity constitutive equation incorporated into a finite element method (FEM) code, i.e., with proper account of the influence of the evolving shape and size of individual grains and of the local grain interactions. The results reproduce well the observed macroscopic behaviour (linear flow stress-strain curve at large strains) and the peculiar mesoscopic structural changes (grain curling in transverse sections). The simulation is focused on the analysis of strain and dislocation density heterogeneities and on the building up of mesoscopic (inter- and intra-granular) internal stresses during deformation. The computed average transverse tensile stresses acting normal to the axially oriented {100} planes approximately parallel to the boundaries of the flattened grains is close to 0.3 times the tensile flow stress of the aggregate, in good agreement with previous calculations based on the Taylor-Bishop-Hill model or on elasticplastic self-consistent calculations and with available neutron diffraction measurements. Such a high level of internal tensile stresses explains the well-known tendency of high strength BCC wires to fail by longitudinal splitting.
Authors: A. Martín-Meizoso, I. Puente, J.M. Sánchez, J. Gil Sevillano
Authors: F. de las Cuevas, Mónica Reis, A. Ferraiuolo, G. Pratolongo, L. Pentti Karjalainen, V. García Navas, J. Gil Sevillano
Abstract: Hot rolled, laboratory-cast, TWIP steel samples (5.4 mm thick) of 22% Mn - 0.6% C (in mass-%) were cold rolled to different reductions (from 40 % to 70 %) and subsequently isothermally annealed for various times at temperatures ranging from 450º C to 1100º C. The evolution of recrystallization and grain growth was followed by control of the softening kinetics complemented by metallographic, OIM and microtexture observations. A map of the recovery, recrystallization and grain growth in the temperature-time space was obtained. In all instances, the grain size at the end of recrystallization was very fine, D ≤ 2 µm and larger grain sizes were the result of grain growth. A range of grain sizes 2 µm ≤ D ≤ 50 µm was covered by the grain growth experiments. A phenomenological grain growth equation that is useful for the annealing control of this steel was derived from the measurements.
Authors: Jon Alkorta, C.J. Luis-Pérez, E.N. Popova, Martin Hafok, Reinhard Pippan, J. Gil Sevillano
Abstract: A commercially pure niobium has been subjected to SPD at room temperature ( ~0.11 TM) via ECAP (90º, route BC) up to 16 passes and via HPT up to shear strains γ =1000. ECAP-ed samples show an equiaxed structure after 8 and 16 passes with a decreasing average grain size. The results show that both the microstructure and mechanical properties of ECAP-ed samples do not reach a steady state up to at least 16 passes. HPT samples show at outer region a finer structural size but similar hardness values at similar equivalent strains. The nanoindentation results show an evident indentation size-effect even for the most deformed samples. The hardness values at the nano level converge for the recrystallized, the ECAP-ed and the HPT samples. This implies that, at the nano level, when the geometrically necessary dislocation density overcomes significantly the (initial) statistically stored dislocation density, hardness depends mainly on the physical intrinsic properties of the material (Burgers modulus, bulk modulus...) and the contribution of bulk mechanical properties (i.e., bulk yield strength) to hardness is smoothed down. Strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) of plastic strength has been also measured by means of rate-jump nanoindentation tests. The SRS is proportional to the inverse of hardness.
Authors: Paul van Houtte, P. Watté, E. Aernoudt, J. Gil Sevillano, Ignace Lefever, W. Van Raemdonck
Authors: J. Gil Sevillano
Authors: P. Watté, Paul van Houtte, E. Aernoudt, J. Gil Sevillano, W. Van Raemdonck, Ignace Lefever
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