Papers by Author: Joseph D. Robson

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Authors: Dimitrios Tsivoulas, Joseph D. Robson
Abstract: Scandium additions are known to offer a number of benefits to aluminium alloy performance. Many of these benefits can be attributed to the precipitation of fine Al3Sc particles. These particles are fully coherent with the aluminium matrix when they are small, but can lose coherency as they grow or coarsen. In this work, the change in coherency has been studied in an Al- 0.12 wt%Sc alloy over the temperature range 300-425oC. Three coherency regimes were identified, consistent with previous observations. The time and temperature range over which coherency changes occur have been measured for a range of conditions and correlated with the precipitation kinetics and the predictions of a model for Al3Sc precipitation. The effect of the coherency change on the particle morphology has also been investigated.
Authors: V.M. Allen, Michael Preuss, Joseph D. Robson, R.J. Comstock
Abstract: Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) has been used to determine microtexture in a zirconium alloy tube subject to interrupted pilgering and therefore exhibiting varying amounts of deformation as a function of axial position along the transition between the initial and final size. Texture and hardness measurements have been made as a function of the distance through the tube wall thickness and along the tube length. Texture results have been compared with co-located hardness measurements. The results show a systematic variation in the deformation texture with changes in Q (the ratio of the reduction in thickness to reduction in diameter). This is consistent with previous observations of the effect of Q on texture evolution in zirconium alloys. It is demonstrated that the texture measurements can be correlated well with the anisotropy in strength determined from hardness measurements.
Authors: Jian Ping Li, Gordon W. Lorimer, Joseph D. Robson, B. Davis
Abstract: The microstructure of three dilute Mg-Mn and two dilute Mg-Zr alloys which had been heat treated at different temperatures and times were studied using optical microscopy and various electron optical techniques, including FEGSEM and TEM. It was found that the Mg-Zr alloys homogenized at 500°C and annealed at 350°C contained a fine dispersion of Zr-containing particles at grain boundaries and within grains. In contrast, annealing Mg-Zr alloys at 300°C for up to 3 h led to little modification of the as-cast structures. When the Mn content was less than 0.9 weight percent, homogenization of the Mg-Mn alloys at 550 to 600°C resulted in the dissolution of small rod-like and needle-shape particles, which then grown up as fine particles when aged at 300°C. Mg- 0.6Mn and Mg-0.9Mn alloys annealed at 300 to 400°C without solution treatment contained a large volume fraction of nano-sized precipitates.
Authors: Joseph D. Robson, Song Cui, Zhan W. Chen
Abstract: Friction stir processing (FSP) of cast AM60 magnesium alloy has been studied using the breaking pin method, freezing the microstructure during the process. Strong evidence is seen that partial melting plays a key role in removing the β-Mg17Al12, whereas the manganese rich intermetallics persist during FSP. This is consistent with temperature predictions made using a process model adapted to FSP of AM60 castings that show the eutectic melting point is exceeded.
Authors: A. Sullivan, Nicolas Kamp, Joseph D. Robson
Abstract: The effect of friction stir welding (FSW) and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the second phase particle distribution and cross weld hardness profile in AA7449 plate has been investigated. The alloy was received in an underaged condition, welded, then PWHT to give an overaged condition (in the parent material) . The effect of this complex treatment on the precipitate distribution in the weld and parent plate has been investigated over a range of length scales using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), TEM and FEGSEM. It is shown that the PWHT does not improve the hardness in the heat affected zone (HAZ), which is the location of the strength minimum after welding, but it does reduce the difference between the hardness in the HAZ and the nugget and parent hardness. The reduction in nugget strength after PWHT is particularly marked and is due to replacement of fine GP zones formed on post weld natural ageing by coarse overaged precipitates.
Authors: Nicolas Kamp, A. Sullivan, R. Tomasi, Joseph D. Robson
Abstract: A numerical model based on the Kampmann and Wagner method was developed to predict the evolution of precipitate distribution in 7xxx aluminium alloy during non-isothermal heat treatments. The model considers the nucleation, growth and coarsening/dissolution of the metastable and equilibrium precipitate phases, η' and η with their stochiometric composition, MgZn2. Constitutive model equations for nucleation were based on the classical theory of nucleation whilst growth and coarsening were treated using classical phase transformation theory. The transition between η' and η, where η' acts as a precursor for η was also accounted for in the model. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to calibrate the homogeneous precipitation kinetics. The model also predicts the evolution of grain boundary precipitates and their effect on precipitate free zone size. Jominy end quench tests were performed to calibrate grain boundary precipitation kinetics. Precipitation on dislocations and dispersoids was considered. The dislocation and dispersoid densities were varied to represent different regions of a grain and therefore account for the spatial distribution of preferential heterogeneous precipitation sites. Comparison between the model prediction and experimental characterisation of the microstructure evolution of a friction stir welded 7449 aluminium alloy was found to be reasonably consistent.
Authors: Joseph D. Robson, Nicolas Kamp, A. Sullivan, Hugh R. Shercliff
Abstract: Two models to predict the microstructural evolution and post-weld properties of friction stir welds in aerospace aluminium alloys are presented. The first model is a develop- ment of an existing semi-empirical method for the prediction of hardness profiles after welding, calibrated using isothermal hardness data. Post-weld natural ageing is accounted for, and a new method that predicts natural ageing kinetics is introduced. Once calibrated, the model is shown to accurately predict weld hardness profiles. However, this model does not explicitly predict the microstructure and therefore cannot readily be extended to model other properties. It can also only be applied to alloys welded in peak or overaged conditions. The second model aims to explicitly predict the heterogeneous precipitate distributions obtained after welding for any initial condition. It is based on classical kinetic theory and the numerical framework of Kampmann and Wagner. Multiple nucleation sites and multiple phases are accounted for. This model provides detailed microstructural information required for prediction of complex properties.
Authors: Joseph D. Robson, Philip B. Prangnell, Brian J. McKay, Chris P. Heason
Abstract: A combined model is presented that predicts the non-uniform distribution of Al3X dispersoid particles in commercial aluminium alloys containing zirconium and scandium and uses these predictions as inputs to a simple recrystallization model. The recrystallization model relies on knowledge of the stored energy in the sub-structure after deformation and this has been measured using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The recrystallization model is based on the concept that partial recrystallization results from the non-uniform distribution of dispersoid particles due to their precipitation from a segregated cast structure. The model has been used to devise an improved homogenization treatment for AA7050, which uses an isothermal hold during heat up to maximize dispersoid nucleation. It has also been applied to predict the effect of scandium additions on recrystallization, investigate the factors that control the through thickness variation in recrystallized fraction, and interpret the results of experiments where the effect of strain rate have been studied.
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