Papers by Author: Kyoung Nam Kim

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Authors: S.I. Yoon, Yong Keun Lee, Kyoung Nam Kim, S.O. Kim, H.K. Son, J.Y. Kwak, J.Y. Kim, H.J. Choi
Abstract: Previous studies have shown that hydroxyapatite increases the bonding strength of dental luting cement with human teeth by forming bone-like apatite when it is added to cement. However, due to the low solubility of the hydroxyapatite, its ability to form bone-like apatite decreases in protein-free acellular simulated body fluid with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of the human blood plasma. The purpose of this experiment was to increase the formation of bone-like apatite by mixing hydroxyapatite with β-TCP of high solubility. RelyXTM glass ionomer cement(3M/ESPE, USA) was used as dental luting cement. Film thickness, setting time, and compressive strength was measured for each group of 15% hydroxyapatite, 15% β-TCP, and 15% mixed hydroxyapatite and β-TCP (85:15). Every specimen of each group was immersed in the simulated body fluid for four week before measuring bonding strength, and then their sectional surface was observed under SEM. The most noteworthy result was that the group containing β-TCP produced more amount of bone-like apatite compared with the group composed of only hydroxyapatite.
Authors: Sang Bae Lee, Kyeong Jun Park, Doug Youn Lee, Jeong Jong Park, Jae Sun Hwang, Yong Keun Lee, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim
Abstract: In this study, the osteoconductive properties of novel cyanoacrylate-based filling materials for bone defect were evaluated. A new filling material was prepared by mixing Histoacryl® and acid-treated  -tricalcium phosphate ( -TCP). Mixing weight ratio of acid-treated  -TCP to Histoacryl® was 5:1. 12 male Spraque-Dawley rats were used in this study. The animals were divided into 4 groups. Critical-sized calvarial defects (8 mm) were created in 9 animals, and then the defects were treated with dense pellet specimen, porous cement-like specimen, and untreated defect for surgical control group. Augmentation treatments were carried out in 3 animals. Histological analysis revealed excellent ostgeoconductive properties of new filling materials. But, some of  -TCP particle in the cement-like group were encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue. For the dense pellet group and augmentation treatment group, shape and stability were better maintained during the implantation time than cement like group. These results indicate that our novel  -TCP/Histoacryl® composite have the potential to serve as filling materials for bone defects in the dental and plastic surgery.
Authors: S.H. Oh, M.J. Choi, B.I. Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim
Abstract: The main objective of this study was to manufacture an oral rinse using the natural antibacterial agent (phytosphingosine, Doosan, Korea) for the prevention of periodontal disease and dental caries. Phytosphingosine is known to inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and induce apoptotic cell death in human cancer lines. In this study, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of oral rinses were performed with an experimental group containing phytosphingosine(PS) in vitro. Control groups consist of two Korean products and two American products containing chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride, respectively. There was no significant difference between experimental and control groups in the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity except for Chika Chika Liq (p<0.05). According to the results, antibacterial activity of oral rinse containing PS was 99.62%, the strongest contact inhibition of Streptococcus mutans strain among tested groups. In the cytotoxicity test of oral rinses, PS had a weaker cytotoxicity than control groups in mouse and human normal cell lines and showed the strongest cytotoxicity in human oral cancer cell lines (KB cell). From the results, PS may be widely used as an oral rinse for the healthy and the patients with oral cancers in the near future.
Authors: Min Chul Kim, Byung Hyun Lee, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: A numerous techniques have been applied to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds of high porosity and surface area. And X-ray micro computed tomography can be used studying the architecture of scaffold. In this study, we fabricated three-dimensional macroporous scaffold by polymeric sponge method using calcium phosphate glass. Calcium phosphate glass slurry was prepared by dissolving the glass powder in water polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and dimethyl formamide. Reticulated polyurethane sponges were used as a template and were coated with the prepared slurry by infiltration technique several times. Sintering at 950oC exhibited dense microstructure as well as entire elimination of organic additives. By repeating the coating and sintering process, it was possible to decrease the pore size and be thick the strut of the structure. The unique feature of the micro computed tomography is that the three dimensions computed reconstruction can be sliced along any direction to gain accurate information on the internal geometric properties and structural parameters of scaffold. Porosity, surface area per unit volume and mean thickness of strut were evaluated through imaging and computer software of scaffold scan data.
Authors: Kyeong Jun Park, Ji Ho Park, Sang Bae Lee, Doug Youn Lee, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim
Abstract: We tried to prepare a new filling material for bone defects using β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles and Histoacryl®. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and bioactive properties of cyanoacrylate-based filling materials for bone defects in the dental field. The shear bond strength values of the Histoacryl® and β-TCP/ Histoacryl® compounds stored in double-distilled water decreased with the increase of the amount of added β-TCP. The temperature change of the β-TCP/ Histoacryl® compounds during polymerization decreased compared to that of the Histoacryl®. The cytotoxicity of the filling materials decreased when the amount of added β-TCP was increased. In the evaluation of bioactivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) was precipitated on the surface and inner space of the porous filling material 4 weeks after immersion in SBF. This precipitation of HA on the surface of the filling material was also confirmed in the XRD result. These results indicate that our novel β-TCP/Histoacryl® compounds have the potential to serve as filling materials for bone defects in the dental field.
Authors: Keun Taek Oh, Kyoung Nam Kim, Dong Hoo Han, M.K. Chung, S.H. Hwang
Abstract: The composition of the electrolytes used in the process of anodic oxidation was modified to generate the novel anodic oxidation. The surface topography of the novel anodic oxidation showed that the pore/crater structures with the precipitants attached over the surface were observed in SEM. The physical properties and biocompatibility of the surface with the novel anodic oxidation were compared with that of anodic oxidation and machined surface of titanium. XRD, Bioactivity in a simulated body fluid, cell proliferation, and MTT test were performed to evaluate the differences among different surfaces.
Authors: Byung Hyun Lee, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: In preliminary ageing test, the cement using only calcium phosphate glass as power phase cracked with 1 day in simulated body fluid because of high dissolution rate of the cement. We added 30 wt% of either β-TCP or HA to 70 wt% calcium phosphate glass as powder phase to control the dissolution rate of the cement and performed in vitro ageing test in simulated body fluid by dynamic protocol as well as static protocol to confirm the possibility of controlling. Adding either β-TCP or HA to the cement increases the setting time and decreases the compressive strength. In dynamic assay, the pH of extract is maintained over 7. However, pH decreased to around 5 in static assay. Therefore, weight loss by static protocol continuously increased for 14 days, while weight loss by dynamic protocol almost saturated. In XRD patterns of ageing cements, CaO peaks appeared. CaO peak was maximized most lately in dynamic assay of the cement adding HA and within 7 days, the cement adding HA showed higher weight loss. It is indicated that CaO formed in surface of the cement hinder the dissolution of the cement. In addition, compressive strength increased when the CaO peak was maximized.
Authors: Seong Ho Choi, D.H. Baik, C.S. Kim, Chong Kwan Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the bone regenerative effect of calcium phosphate glass and glass-ceramics in the system of CaO-CaF2-P2O5-MgO-ZnO, which is already reported that promoted the bone-like tissue formation in vitro and formed new bone in Sprague-Dawley rats. We prepared calcium phosphate glass and glass-ceramics with Ca/P ratio of 0.6 using the system CaO-CaF2-P2O5-MgO-ZnO and subsequently milled to 400 µm. 4×4 mm 1-wall intrabony defects of six beagle dogs were surgically created and used in this study. 8 weeks after transplantation of the prepared calcium phosphate glass and glass-ceramics in the experimental group 1 and 2, respectively, the animals were sacrificed. No root resorption or ankylosis were observed in all groups. It can be examined that the prepared glass-ceramics were more effective in alveolar bone regeneration with statistical signigicant difference. In cementum regeneration, both the prepared glass and glass-ceramics showed significantly different effect. However, there were no statistical significant difference neither in glass nor glass-ceramics in the amounts of junctional epithelium migration and connective tissue adhesion. Further study is required to control the flowability as well as reduce the absorption rate in vivo.
Authors: Kwang Mahn Kim, Sang Bae Lee, Se Ho Lee, Yong Keun Lee, Kyoung Nam Kim
Abstract: Cytotoxicity test was essential for the pre-clinical evaluation of bioceramics. Proliferation assays such as MTT, XTT and WST-1 were commonly used for measuring biocompatibility. WST-1 was more convenient than MTT because of its water-solubility and storage condition. The calcium phosphate glass and β-TCP have been used for bone substitute, and some magnetic ferrites have been used for hyperthermic treatment. L929, mouse fibroblast cell, was the representative cell-line for in vitro biocompatibility test. The extracts of test samples were prepared by ISO10993-12:2002. The biocompatibilities of the extracts were measured by MTT and WST-1 assay and their pH were measured with pH meter. The cellular survival rate of CPG was the lowest and the results of the WST-1 test showed results similar to those of the MTT test. Thus, proliferation assays using WST-1 may be conveniently and routinely applicable to pre-clinical evaluation of bioceramics.
Authors: Yeon Ung Kim, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: This study presents the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with a small amount of calcium phosphate glass powder as sintering additives. Hydroxyapatite slurry was prepared by suspending the hydroxyapatite and glass powder in water. Polyurethane sponge was used to produce highly macroporous scaffolds. The rheological characteristic of the slurry was measured to identify the effect of adding calcium phosphate glass powder into hydroxyapatite slurry. Sintered scaffolds could be repeatedly coated to improve mechanical properties. Scaffolds prepared by single and double replication cycle process were characterized by density, porosity and compressive strength measurements by increasing amount of the calcium phosphate glass powder to the hydroxyapatite slurry, viscosity by increased more than same amount of pure hydroxyapatite, and the capillary force was similar to pure hydroxyapatite slurry. The compressive strength of the macroporous hydroxyxapatite scaffold containing the calcium phosphate glass powder showed higher value than that of pure hydroxyapatite at single replication cycle. SEM demonstrated that the microstructure of the scaffold became denser with the introduction of the calcium phosphate glass powder. The pore struts were thicker as replication cycle was increased.
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