Papers by Author: Lars Arnberg

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Authors: Paul L. Schaffer, Ragnvald H. Mathiesen, Lars Arnberg
Abstract: Hypermonotectic alloys are distinguished by a temperature region for which the homogeneous melt decomposes into two liquid phases. In Al-based hypermonotectics, the minority phase is much higher in density than the matrix melt phase and consequently macro-segregation due to sedimentation is an inherent problem when casting these alloys. However, under the correct solidification conditions, it may be feasible to counteract sedimentation by thermocapillary forces that arise due to the thermosolutal dependence of the surface tension between the two liquid phases. The current investigation involved in-situ X-ray video microscopy studies during directional solidification of Al-Bi samples of various compositions employing a Bridgman furnace. It was found that large undercoolings were required to initiate the L  L1 + L2 reaction and L2 nucleation occurred heterogeneously on the monotectic front. L2 droplets were then set in collective size-dependent motion by hydrodynamic forces coupled to external fields (i.e. temperature gradient and gravity) and internal fluctuations. The resulting flow fields are superimposed onto the short range coagulation mechanisms, such as diffusion coupling, and are all crucial in determining the final size distribution and dispersion of the Bi-rich phase in the cast material.
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Authors: Ø. Nielsen, Lars Arnberg, Asbjørn Mo, H.J. Thevik
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Authors: Antoine Autruffe, Jesper Friis, Lasse Vines, Lars Arnberg, Marisa di Sabatino
Abstract: Small angle grain boundaries have been grown in a small Bridgman furnace, using seeded growth method, at three different pulling rates i.e. 3 μm/s, 13 μm/s and 40 μm/s. In order to assess segregation mechanisms of impurities towards the central grain boundary, melt has been polluted by 50ppma of either copper or indium. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) local analyses have been performed to investigate the impact of solid state diffusion and limited rejection of solute at the grain boundary for each growth rate. The results are discussed in connection with an atomistic model built on Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP).
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Authors: Yacine Boulfrad, Gaute Stokkan, Mohammed M'Hamdi, Eivind Øvrelid, Lars Arnberg
Abstract: Lifetime distribution of a multicrystalline silicon ingot of 250 mm diameter and 100 mm height, grown by unidirectional solidification has been modeled. The model computes the combined effect of interstitial iron and dislocation distribution on minority carrier lifetime of the ingot based on Shockley Read Hall (SRH) recombination model for iron point defects and Donolato’s model for recombination on dislocations. The iron distribution model was based on the solid state diffusion of iron from the crucible and coating to the ingot during its solidification and cooling, taking into account segregation of iron to the melt and back diffusion after the end of solidification. Dislocation density distribution is determined from experimental data obtained by PVScan analysis from a vertical cross section slice. Calculated lifetime is fitted to the measured one by fitting parameters relating the recombination strength and the local concentration of iron
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Authors: C.J. Paradies, Lars Arnberg, H.J. Thevik, Asbjørn Mo
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Authors: Yan Jun Li, Lars Arnberg
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Authors: Tine Uberg Naerland, Birger Retterstøl Olaisen, Lars Arnberg
Abstract: A review of light soaking of solar cells by the use of commercial IV-characterization instruments is presented. The paper addresses the challenges of studying light induced degradation (LID) using a high intensity light source. Issues related to heating of the cell, temporal intensity instability and the impact of the irradiance spectrum are discussed. The main focus of the paper is devoted to the degradation of boron-doped Czochralski silicon (Cz-Si) where boron-oxygen related complexes are responsible for a metastable defect formation. Some advantages and limitations concerning the use of IV characteristics to reveal the degradation properties of boron-doped Cz-Si compared to applying minority carrier lifetime techniques are also presented.
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Authors: Ragnvald H. Mathiesen, Lars Arnberg
Abstract: In-situ synchrotron X-ray radiography has been used to study columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth in directional solidification of Al-Cu alloys employing a Bridgman furnace. Nominal spatial and temporal resolutions of 1.5 µm and 150 ms, respectively, were obtained with a 1.3 %1.3 mm2 field of view, and a signal-to-noise above 99.5 %. Dedicated processing software has been developed to allow for quantitative extraction of data such as solid-liquid interface morphology, local propagation velocities and constitutional gradients from the images. The data collected also contain unprecedented in-situ observations on dendrite fragmentation. The limited field of view together with a slight sample position dependency in the heat transfer coefficients made it necessary to impose thermal gradients, G > 10 K/mm, to have reproducible solidification processes. Non-vanishing horizontal G-components contributed to convection that at some occasions resulted in observable effects on growing crystals or on liquid segregates.
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