Papers by Author: Laurent Barrallier

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Authors: Adele Carradò, Hervé Pelletier, Felix Sima, Carmen Ristoscu, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Ion N. Mihailescu
Abstract: In this article, two original studies of the alumina as porous substrate and PLD (pulsed laser deposition) thin films in view of its biomedical and tribological applications are presented. The first biomedical study aimed to evaluate the role of Al2O3 on thin deposited nanostructures. For this purpose, cerium stabilized zirconia doped hydroxyapatite thin films were deposited by PLD onto high purity, high density alumina substrates with different low porosities. For deposition, an UV KrF* (λ=248 nm, τ ~ 25 ns) excimer laser was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the targets. The nanostructured surface morphologies of the thin films with micro droplets were evidenced by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and the compositions with a Ca/P ratio of 1.7 by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The films were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells for in vitro tests. The cells showed good attachment and spread and covered uniformly the surface of the samples. Different functions of substrate porosities are observed in the efficiency of developing long filopodia and of obtaining the optimal intracellular organization. The second study aimed to understand the influence of micro-structural and mechanical characteristics on the tribological behaviour of stainless steel samples with PLD alumina coatings produced using an UV KrF* (λ=248 nm, τ ~ 20 ns) excimer laser and a sintered alumina target. Various microscopic observation techniques were used in order to connect the tribological response to the amorphous microstructure of the coatings. The results correspond to the determination of the mechanical characteristics by nanoindentation tests, scratch tests, and a tribological behaviour analysis of the treated steel against 100Cr6. The films were stoichiometric, partially crystallized with an amorphous matrix and their surfaces had few particulates deposited on. The obtained values of hardness and elastic modulus of the films were in good agreements with literature data.
Authors: A. Kouadri, Laurent Barrallier
Abstract: This study looks at the effect of laser welding on residual stresses in sheets of moulded magnesium alloy (AZ91). The modifications are significant even though they are localised along the weld line. The welding process produces a gradient of residual stresses from the weld line to the base metal and throughout the thickness of the weld zone. The distribution of these residual stresses has been qualitatively explained by the kinetics of cooling and by the nature of the multiphase material. Finally, it has been demonstrated that a pronounced crystallographic texture modifies local distribution of residual stresses. These results show that there is a complex coupling between the metallurgical, thermal and mechanical aspects generated by high power welding procedures.
Authors: Adele Carradò, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Nathalie Viart, Ion N. Mihailescu, Gabriel Socol, Sorin Grigorescu, Jacques Werckmann, S. Ciuca, M. Tarcolea
Abstract: The aim of this paper is the residual stress evaluation in dental implants and the improvement of adherence at the metal-ceramic interface. This study is focused on the development of a multi-layer system model of Hydroxyapatite/TiO2/Ti components. Our aim is to validate new methods of laser ablation deposition and sol-gel, by controlling the residual stresses and actual adherence to titanium substrates. We present a report of the growth of hydroxyapatite layers by PLD (pulsed laser deposition) and sol-gel deposition, and the measurement of their residual stresses.
Authors: Vincent Goret, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Patrick Vardon
Abstract: Nitriding is a thermo-chemical treatment to improve fatigue life of steel parts what are exposed to high cyclic loading on and close to the surface like gears for example. During the nitrogen diffusion, the precipitation of nitrides and carbides generates residual stresses and increases the superficial hardness. These residual stresses are function of the conditions of the nitriding process but also critically depend on the geometry of the steel components. Indeed, the result of the diffusion process is different for a plane geometry or a curvilinear one. In this present work, the sample is a part of a gear, composed by two teeth. Between two teeth of gear, the determination of in-depth stress gradients by classical X-rays diffraction cannot be done with a great accuracy: the spatial resolution is not sufficient because the irradiated area has the same dimension than the surface curvature of the component. Furthermore, it is very difficult to take into account the removal of matter that is required to determine in-depth stress profile because of the particular geometry. The synchrotron diffraction technique is a well-adapted method to determine such stress gradients in strongly absorbing materials due to the capability of penetration power of high energy X-rays. The removal of matter is not required and it is possible to determine an in-depth map of the stress tensor. After measurements on the ESRF ID15 beam line, stress profile has been calculated without the σ33 equal to zero hypothesis. The results are as following: compressive residual stresses were found close to the surface, and the calculated σ33 component of stress tensor is really not equal to zero. This important result seems to show the geometrical effect on stress state near non-plane surface.
Authors: Guillaume Fallot, Sebastien Jegou, Laurent Barrallier
Abstract: The evolution of residual stresses during short time gas nitriding of 33CrMoV12-9 steel grade is studied. It aims understanding the influence of nitriding parameters (temperature and nitriding potential) on the generation and evolution of residual stresses in the very first stage of nitriding. The samples are gas nitrided using a thermobalance during 2h30 and 5 hours for various temperatures and nitriding potentials. Residual stress analyses are carried out by laboratory X-ray diffraction.
Authors: Adele Carradò, Jean Michel Sprauel, Laurent Barrallier, Alain Lodini
Authors: Pierre Renaud, Philippe Bristiel, Laurent Barrallier, Marc Desvignes, Regis Kubler
Abstract: This experimental study focuses on the influence of shot peening on parts initially treated by carburizing or carbonitriding. Experimental investigations have been carried out: optical observations of the microstructures, in-depth hardness measurement, X-ray diffraction analysis of residual stresses. A comparison is made between the carburizing anad the carbonitriding treatments.
Authors: Camille Deleuze, Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier, Olivier Molinas
Abstract: Residual stresses are to be determined to predict mechanical behaviour of vital parts in aircraft. This part constituted by Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD). However, the broadening and sometime the disappearance of peaks involve a major difficulty to quantify the strains and the stresses which are close to the surface. In the current study, some investigations are conducted in order to understand the difficulties to evaluate stresses by XRD. The microstructure of samples is studied by taking into account the history of surface generation: after the forging and after the shot-peening process. Shot-peening induces a distortion of the primary phase α which is close to the surface. Different deformation rates introduced by forging process have generated a different organisation in the second phase constituted by α secondary and β. To complete the investigation, crystallographic textures are performed on α phase. The main difficulty in analysing when using XRD is due to the peak broadening. The conclusion of this study identifies three separate zones beneath the surface: where the stresses can be determined, it is possible to analyze it using different method of analysis with different levels of accuracy.
Authors: Agnès Fabre, Laurent Barrallier
Abstract: Nitriding is an hardening thermomechanical treatment generally used to improve fatigue life of steel parts, like gear for example. Another effect of this treatment is generating superficial stress, influenced by nitriding conditions, composition of steel and geometry of the part. This work deals with the effect of shape on the residual stress profile obtain after nitriding on a gear tooth. The residual stress profile was determined using neutrons diffraction technique.
Authors: Agnès Fabre, Ivan Lillamand, Jean-Éric Masse, Laurent Barrallier
Abstract: Neutron diffraction measurements were used in this study in order to determine the axial stress state in loaded screw from a specific assembly. The knowing of stress gradient is need to qualify a standard gauge used to calibrate the response of in-situ measurements using ultrasonic nondestructive technique. US is well adapted to perform measurements of the evolution of stress state on industrial screws during service life of the bolded assemblies.
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