Papers by Author: Leo Kestens

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Authors: Roumen H. Petrov, Orlando León-García, Hemant Sharma, Kyoo Young Lee, S. Eric Offerman, Leo Kestens
Abstract: Texture formation during an austempering treatment of a TRIP-assisted steel was studied by in-situ texture measurements with a high energy source (synchrotron). Samples from a cold rolled sheet were subjected to a complete heat treatment cycle for TRIP steels including reheating to the intercritical (α+γ) temperature region, isothermal soaking and bainitic holding (austempering) at 400°C for 600s. At specific points of the thermal cycle {200}γ, {220}γ {222}γ, {331}γ and {200}α, {211}α and {220}α Debye rings were recorded and the corresponding incomplete pole figures were calculated. The latter were used to derive the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of BCC and FCC phases at specific steps of the annealing process after assuming the orthotropic sample symmetry. The acquired data for the texture evolution during the α–γ–α phase transformation showed that during the reheating for intercritical annealing the gamma phase with {011} orientation is among the first to nucleate from the recrystallized α phase during heating and the Goss and Cube orientations are among the principal gamma phase components which transform to BCC phase after cooling.
Authors: Leo Kestens, D. Vanderschueren, Paul van Houtte, E. Aernoudt, J. Dilewijns, C. Standaert
Authors: Pablo Rodriguez-Calvillo, Roumen H. Petrov, Yvan Houbaert, Leo Kestens
Abstract: Electrical steels, in particular Fe-Si alloys, are used as magnetic flux carrier in transformers and motors because of their excellent magnetic properties. They owe these magnetic properties in part to the presence of specific texture components such as the Goss ({110} <001>) or the cube components ({001} <010>), but also to the chemical composition which is optimum with 6.5 wt. % Si. This high silicon content provides a stable BCC lattice structure to the alloy over the entire solid state domain, but also renders the material more brittle. This embrittlement, which is induced by ordering phenomena, makes it impossible to produce the alloy in a conventional rolling process unless a specific thermomechanical route at high temperature is applied. In order to examine the working behaviour of high Si electrical steels, a series of room temperature plane strain compression tests was carried out on a Fe-3%Si alloy in hot band condition. The samples were compressed with a constant strain rate of 20 s-1 to a reduction of 10, 35 and 70% and subsequently annealed for different times at 800 and 900°C in an electrical furnace without protecting atmosphere. The hot rolled microstructure displayed an average grain size of 195 7m and the texture showed on the cube component ({001} <010>) of maximum 5x random levels. After plane strain compression the samples developed the conventional α (<110> // RD) / γ (<111> // ND) fibre texture by plastic shear which was also accommodated, in part, by mechanical twinning. With regard to the annealed material, it was observed that the recrystallisation started in grains with the higher stored energy and within the shear bands. After a reduction of 70% the samples that were annealed at 800°C for 4 hours displayed an average grain size of 27 7m and a relative maximum of 4x random on the cube component. Also other less intense components such as the rotated cube ({001} <110>) and the Goss ({110} <001>) were present in the annealing texture. The samples that were annealed at 900°C, after a reduction of 70%, were characterized by an average grain size of 36 7m and by the appearance of the {111} <121> γ fibre component with an intensity of 4.7.
Authors: L. Rabet, Leo Kestens, Paul van Houtte, E. Aernoudt
Authors: Linsey Lapeire, Esther Martinez Lombardia, Kim Verbeken, Iris de Graeve, Leo Kestens, Herman Terryn
Abstract: In order to increase the sustainability of metals, a more detailed understanding of the corrosion process is of crucial importance. Current literature often considers corrosion as a purely chemical interaction with a nearly exclusive dependence on compositional effects, while ignoring microstructural and crystallographic properties of the metal surface. Some recent literature data, however, suggest an important effect of microstructural elements such as grain size, crystallographic orientation and grain boundary characteristics. The aim of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the relation between the corrosion behaviour of a metal and its microstructural and crystallographic features. Therefore, warm rolled Electrolytic Tough Pitch (ETP-) Cu was immersed in a 0.1 M NaCl and 0.5M Na2SO4 solution and the combination of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) allowed to identify differences in attack for different crystallographic orientations.
Authors: Jesús Galán López, Patricia Verleysen, Soroosh Naghdy, Leo Kestens
Abstract: The use of finite element simulations has become one of the main tools of the mechanical engineer. The method is applied to the analysis and design of engineering structures, the study of manufacturing processes and even to perform virtual experiments. Traditionally, the constitutive laws chosen for finite element analysis have been as simple as possible, mainly due to the limitation imposed by the available computing power. However, the development of more powerful computers and more efficient methods is opening the possibility of using more elaborated (and, most often, more accurate) material models. In particular, polycrystal models capable of predicting not only the mechanical behaviour of the material, but also of the evolution of properties with increasing strain, are particularly well suited for the simulation of forming processes, for which a precise knowledge of the properties of the resulting product is of paramount importance.The present work studies how the Visco Plastic Self-Consistent model (VPSC) can be used in combination with the implicit finite element package Abaqus/Standard to simulate the behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V sheet, and compares it with the more common (and much simpler) Johnson-Cook model. More specifically, the goal of this study is to determine whether or not, with using similar experimental calibration data, the use of the much more complex polycrystal model, justifies the increased complexity and execution time. Using standard tensile experiments at different strain rates, the parameters of the VPSC and Johnson-Cook models are fitted using a minimization method. Then, both models are used in finite element simulations and the results given by both models are compared.
Authors: Patricia Gobernado, Roumen H. Petrov, Leo Kestens
Abstract: The grain boundary energy anisotropy in BCC Fe-based polycrystals is considered. The correlation between the energy in BCC random grain boundaries and the distribution of grain boundary planes in the bulk was examined with a special attention on the presence of low index (low surface energy) planes in the internal surfaces. For a BCC structure, {100} and {110} planes are known to be the lowest energy planes dominating the equilibrium crystal shapes. Experimental evidences demonstrated that these planes were predominant in the texture of surfaces controlled by surface energy [2]. Moreover, the relation between the grain boundary character distribution and the crystallographic dependence on the grain boundary energy in the bulk after annealing treatment was studied. The grain character boundary distribution (GCBD) was calculated using the crystallographic information obtained from OIM-EBSD maps from samples showing columnar grains. Preliminary results showed no particular distribution trend within the standard stereographic triangle (001-101-111).
Authors: Ana Carmen C. Reis, Leo Kestens
Abstract: An interstitial-free steel was severely plastically deformed in an accumulative roll bonding (ARB) experiment with 10 consecutive passes applied at 480°C. Nominal reductions of 50% per pass and an intermediate annealing treatment of 5 min. at 520°C were employed. A total true strain of evM = 8.00 was applied, which corresponds to an accumulated reduction of 99.9%. The evolution of texture and microstructure was monitored by means of orientation imaging microscopy. A lamellar microstructure, characteristic of severely rolled sheet materials, was observed even after the highest strains. The average lamellar width was determined as a function of rolling strain. Under the experimental limitations in terms of spatial resolution, no significant difference was observed between the average lamellar width in the mid-section and near the surface of the sheet. Texture analysis revealed a conventional cross-sectional gradient with plane strain rolling components in the mid-layers and shear components in the subsurface regions. Although these different strain modes did not affect the microstructure in terms of the average lamellar spacing, an effect was observed on the average aspect ratio of the grains. This was much higher in the sheared (surface) layers than in the plane strain compressed (centre) areas. The surface structure did not have an effect, though, on the bulk microstructural evolution in spite of the specific nature of the ARB process during which the surface layer of one pass reappears in the mid-section of the next pass.
Authors: Igor Pyshmintsev, Alexey Gervasyev, Roumen H. Petrov, Victor Carretero Olalla, Leo Kestens
Abstract: Low ductile crack arrestability in a full-scale burst test of 1420 mm-diameter X80 steel line pipes was accompanied by a high intensity of fracture surface separation. The texture of the steel plates was studied using different techniques in order to evaluate the influence of {001} planes oriented parallel to the rolling plane on the separation intensity during fracture. Though no clear correlation between the content of {001} planes parallel to the rolling plane and intensity of separation was found, the local distribution of the {001}<110> texture component among the microstructure components was different in different steels providing long areas suitable for cleavage fracture parallel to the rolling plane in steel with low arrestability.
Authors: Orlando León-García, Roumen H. Petrov, Leo Kestens
Abstract: The microstructure evolution in the deformation zone around second phase particles of IF steel sheets subjected to tensile deformation has been investigated in order to correlate it to the damage at microstructural scale. The experimental set-up consisted of a series of interrupted tensile tests which were carried out at different tensile deformations up to fracture. The microstructure of the deformed samples was investigated by EBSD analysis in which the EBSD scans were focused on the areas containing Ti (C, N) particles of cubical shape. It was found that at tensile strains below 25%, the ferrite matrix exhibited the evolution of slip bands inside specific grains depending on their crystallographic orientation although no special strain localization around the particles was observed. After 35% of tensile strain, the strain concentrates around the particles and particle-matrix decohesion was observed. The lattice rotations of the matrix surrounding the particles as well as the selective deformation of the grains are analyzed and discussed.
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