Papers by Author: Mario Rudolphi

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Authors: Mario Rudolphi, Daniel Renusch, Hans Eberhard Zschau, Michael Schütze
Abstract: Thermal barrier coatings used in airplane engines or land-based gas turbines can show catastrophic failure (i. e. spallation) typically during cooldown due to thermal expansion mismatch stresses. However, it is also often noted that spallation occurs minutes, hours, or even days after the sample is cold. This type of delayed failure, called “desk top spallation” is, up to now, not fully understood and therefore a field of great interest. Because desk top failure occurs in ambient air, the working hypothesis is that water vapor from the office environment plays a role. Consequently, a number of experiments have been designed to verify this hypothesis. The experiments include more traditional approaches like acoustic emission measurements during cyclic oxidation, but also innovative new approaches like acoustic emission during water drop testing, and hydrogen detection at the interface to the thermally grown oxide using ion beam techniques.
Authors: Wolfgang Gruber, Günter Borchardt, Harald Schmidt, Mario Rudolphi, H. Baumann, P. Gerstel, A. Müller
Authors: Harald Schmidt, Günter Borchardt, Mario Rudolphi, H. Baumann, Michael Bruns, S. Weber, Hubert Scherrer
Abstract: The self-diffusion of nitrogen is investigated in polycrystalline thin silicon nitride films using a gas-exchange method (14N2/Si3 15N4) in comparison to Si3 14N4/Si3 15N4/Si3 14N4 isotope heterostructures. The films are produced by reactive r. f. magnetron sputtering. Depth profile analysis is carried out with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS), and nuclear resonant reaction analysis (NRRA). The nitrogen diffusivities determined with the use of isotope heterostructures follow an Arrhenius law in the temperature range between 1200 and 1700 °C with an activation enthalpy of DH = 4.9 eV and a pre-exponential factor of D0 = 1 x 10-6 m2/s, indicating a conventional diffusion mechanism via localized point defects. Using the gas-exchange method, the nitrogen diffusivities could be obtained only in the temperature range between 1600 and 1700 °C. This is due to the fact that at temperatures below 1600 °C the surface exchange process with its high activation enthalpy (about 10 eV) is rate limiting, leading to non detectable diffusion profiles. The application of the different methods of depth profiling leads to the same diffusivities within estimated errors.
Authors: Michael Schütze, Mario Rudolphi
Abstract: A new model concept for predicting mechanical oxide scale failure is applied to Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe3O4 and NiO. The calculated critical strain values are plotted versus the physical defect size using a simplified version of the original h-w-concept. A limited number of experimental data existing in the literature were entered into the plots and yield satisfactory agreement with the model data. Future efforts should focus on extending the experimental data basis and converting these data into h-values for the model.
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