Papers by Author: Mark J. Loboda

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Authors: Gil Yong Chung, Mark J. Loboda, Jie Zhang, Jian Wei Wan, E.P. Carlson, T.J. Toth, Robert E. Stahlbush, Marek Skowronski, R. Berechman, Siddarth G. Sundaresan, Ranbir Singh
Abstract: Improvements in the quality and consistency of 4H-SiC epitaxy wafers are now starting to enable growth of commercial SiC power device applications in areas such as inverters for photo-voltaic systems and power supplies. Recent work has achieved very low epitaxy surface roughness and very low BPD (Basal plane dislocation) in the on 4 degree off-axis substrates. In this paper, we report characterization of the very low BPD epitaxy wafers and a newly observed triangular defect.
Authors: Jian Wei Wan, Seung Ho Park, Gil Yong Chung, E.P. Carlson, Mark J. Loboda
Abstract: Micropipes are considered to be a major device killer in SiC wafers. Developing a method to count and map micropipes efficiently and accurately has been a challenging task to date. In this work, a new method based on KOH etching and full wafer, high resolution digital imaging is developed to map and count micropipes in both conductive and semi-insulating SiC wafers. This method is also compared with a non-destructive method based on laser light scattering and a good agreement between the two methods is demonstrated.
Authors: Darren M. Hansen, Gil Yong Chung, Mark J. Loboda
Abstract: A detailed understanding of the incorporation of N2 gas during PVT growth of SiC is required to achieve high performance, low resistivity n+ SiC substrates necessary for power device applications. In this report, nitrogen incorporation is investigated for growth of 4H SiC crystals from 2” to 3” diameter in conditions ranging from unintentionally doped to low resistivity (0.015 - cm). For a wafer in a particular boule a resistivity uniformity of ± 5% is typical although the uniformity decreases when the wafer orientation is cut off axis from the bulk growth direction. Within a boule growth, the nitrogen incorporation is found to be a function of growth time. As growth continues, the resistivity of wafers cut further from the seed increases. A typical 3” on axis sliced wafer has a within wafer resistivity uniformity of 5% compared with an average seed to tail variation of 10%. Due to the axial resistivity gradient the within wafer resistivity uniformity of off axis sliced wafers is 8%. These axial and radial gradients are thought to be a function of the changing C/Si ratio during growth. Nitrogen incorporation as a function of PVT geometry, N2 partial pressure, and growth temperature are investigated and discussed. In particular, nitrogen incorporation is found to depend on the crucible size and nitrogen partial pressure, but is not strongly dependent on the absolute growth temperature, for growth temperature ranging over 150°C. Modeling of PVT growth shows the axial resistivity gradient can be linked with a change in the C/Si ratio versus time. Trends and N2 gas incorporation behavior will be discussed using resistivity mapping, SIMS, and Hall effect data.
Authors: Huan Huan Wang, Sha Yan Byrapa, F. Wu, Balaji Raghothamachar, Michael Dudley, Edward Sanchez, Darren M. Hansen, Roman Drachev, Stephan G. Mueller, Mark J. Loboda
Abstract: In this paper, we report on the synchrotron white beam topographic (SWBXT) observation of “hopping” Frank-Read sources in 4H-SiC. A detailed mechanism for this process is presented which involves threading edge dislocations experiencing a double deflection process involving overgrowth by a macrostep (MP) followed by impingement of that macrostep against a step moving in the opposite direction. These processes enable the single-ended Frank-Read sources created by the pinning of the deflected basal plane dislocation segments at the less mobile threading edge dislocation segments to “hop” from one slip plane to other parallel slip planes. We also report on the nucleation of 1/3< >{ } prismatic dislocation half-loops at the hollow cores of micropipes and their glide under thermal shear stress.
Authors: Gil Yong Chung, Mark J. Loboda, M.J. Marninella, D.K. Schroder, Tamara Isaacs-Smith, John R. Williams
Abstract: The pulsed MOS-C (Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Capacitor) technique was used to measure generation lifetimes in 4H-SiC epitaxial wafers. The ratio of generation to recombination lifetime has been investigated to understand the dominant defect for generation lifetime. The EH6/7 defect level is considered to limit generation lifetime and field enhanced emission is proposed to explain extremely large variation of generation lifetime in a small area. Generation lifetime is limited by dislocations when they are above a threshold density of about 106cm-2. Generation lifetimes measured on 4 and 8 degree off-cut angle epi-substrates are very comparable.
Authors: Gil Yong Chung, Mark J. Loboda, Mike F. MacMillan, Jian Wei Wan, Darren M. Hansen
Abstract: Excess carrier lifetimes in 4H SiC epitaxial wafers were characterized by microwave photoconductive decay (o/PCD). The measured decay compromised of surface and bulk recombination curves have fast and slow components. Measured lifetimes are not changed with various surface passivation techniques. High resolution lifetime maps show good correlation with stress birefringence images and lower lifetime around extended material defects like grainboundaries, defect clusters, edge defects and polytype switching bands. Chlorosilane based CVD epiwafers show higher bulk lifetime values than standard silane based CVD materials due to less bulk lifetime defect density.
Authors: Michael Dudley, Ning Zhang, Yu Zhang, Balaji Raghothamachar, Sha Yan Byrapa, Gloria Choi, Edward Sanchez, Darren M. Hansen, Roman Drachev, Mark J. Loboda
Abstract: Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) studies are presented of basal plane dislocation (BPD) configurations and behavior in a new generation of 100mm diameter, 4H-SiC wafers with extremely low BPD densities (3-4 x 102 cm-2). The conversion of non-screw oriented, glissile BPDs into sessile threading edge dislocations (TEDs) is observed to provide pinning points for the operation of single ended Frank-Read sources. In some regions, once converted TEDs are observed to re-convert back into BPDs in a repetitive process which provides multiple BPD pinning points.
Authors: Mike F. MacMillan, Mark J. Loboda, Jian Wei Wan, Gil Yong Chung, E.P. Carlson, Michael J. Spaulding, D. Deese
Abstract: Gas phase etching of 4H SiC n+ substrates was performed utilizing chlorine containing etch chemistries in a hot wall CVD system. Carbon and silicon vapor were added to explore selective etching reactions on the wafer surface. The impact of the etch on the bare wafer surface as a function of temperature and etch chemistry is investigated. Selection of the etch chemistry and temperature are critical to ensure a smooth etched surface on which to begin epitaxial deposition. Etching also influences defect propagation from the substrate into the epitaxial layer. The results show etch chemistry reactions will influence the conversion of micropipes in the epi buffer layer.
Authors: Gil Yong Chung, Mark J. Loboda, Siddarth G. Sundaresan, Ranbir Singh
Abstract: Correlation between carrier lifetime and forward voltage drop in 4H-SiC PiN diodes has been investigated. PiN diodes from the drift layer of 20 m shows breakdown voltage of 3.3 kV and forward voltage drop as low as 3.13 V at 100A/cm2. Variation of calculated forward voltage drop ( ) from measured carrier lifetimes is very comparable to measured of fully processed PiN diodes. Measured carrier lifetime and of PiN diodes also show good spatial correlation. Wafer level lifetime mapping can be employed to assess and predict of PiN diodes.
Authors: H.M. Liaw, R. Venugopal, J. Wan, R. Doyle, P. Fejes, Mark J. Loboda, M.R. Melloch
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