Papers by Author: Michael E. Fitzpatrick

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Authors: Jeffrey Meng Lee Tan, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, Lyndon Edwards
Abstract: Exact closed-form stress intensity factor (SIF) solutions have been developed for a mode- I through-thickness cracks in an infinite plate. Centre-crack problems have been analysed comprehensively in the literature, but the focus has been on the effect of simple loading about the crack centre. In the current work, the formula of Sih-Paris-Erdogan has been extended to consider the SIF difference on the left and right crack tips, under the local influence of general asymmetric and symmetric stress field. Exact SIF magnification factors convenient for computations have been derived that simultaneously circumvent the problem of crack-tip stress singularity. The solutions so obtained are applied to generate the residual SIFs that would act on a crack growing under the influence of the residual stress fields associated with welded plates and cold-worked holes using the measured residual stress profiles.
Authors: Lyndon Edwards, Mike C. Smith, Mark Turski, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, P. John Bouchard
Abstract: The safe operation of both thermal and nuclear power plant is increasingly dependent upon structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. Furthermore, structural failures most commonly occur at welds so the accurate design and remnant life assessment of welded plant is critical. The residual stress distribution assumed in defect assessments often has a deciding influence on the analysis outcome, and in the absence of accurate and reliable knowledge of the weld residual stresses, the design codes and procedures use assumptions that yield very conservative assessments that can severely limit the economic life of some plant. However, recent advances in both the modeling and measurement of residual stresses in welded structures and components open up the possibility of characterising weld residual stresses in operating plant using state-of–the–art fully validated Finite Element simulations. This paper describes research undertaken to predict residual stresses in stainless steel welds in order to provide validated reliable, accurate Structural Integrity assessment of nuclear power plant components
Authors: Stefano Coratella, M. Burak Toparli, Michael E. Fitzpatrick
Abstract: Residual stresses play a fundamental role in mechanical engineering. They can be generated by manufacturing processes or introduced purposely by surface treatment technologies. One of the most recent technologies developed to introduce residual stresses is Laser Shock Peening. Since it is a relatively expensive technology, a fundamental role is played by the Finite Element Analysis approach to predict the final residual stress profile. The FEA approach consists of either direct simulation of the LSP process or the application of the eigenstrain approach. The application of the eigenstrain theory in predicting residual stresses after LSP treatment in curved edges is the subject of this research.
Authors: S. Ganguly, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, Lyndon Edwards
Abstract: The residual stress field in a VPPA welded AA2024 coupon sample was measured by neutron diffraction. A similar sample was measured using synchrotron X-rays to determine the inplane strain directions. The macrostrain obtained from both sources compares well in spite of the significant difference in gauge volume and diffraction geometry. The result confirms the repeatability of the weld process and also shows good correspondence between the two diffraction processes.
Authors: M.K. Khan, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, L.E. Edwards, S.V. Hainsworth
Abstract: The residual strain field around the scratches of 125µm depth and 5µm root radius have been measured from the Synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Scratches were produced using different tools in fine-grained aluminium alloy AA 5091. Residual stresses up to +1700 micro-strains were measured at the scratch tip for one tool but remained up to only +1000 micro-strains for the other tool scratch. The load-displacement curves obtained from nanoindentation were used to determine the residual stresses around the scratches. It was found that the load-displacement curves are sensitive to any local residual stress field present and behave according to the type of residual stresses. This combination of nanoindentation and synchrotron X-rays has been proved highly effective for the study of small-scale residual stresses around the features such as scratches.
Authors: M. Kartal, Rafal M. Molak, Mark Turski, S. Gungor, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, Lyndon Edwards
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a method of extracting local mechanical properties from weld metal by strain mapping using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The feasibility of determining local stress-strain behaviour in the weld zone of a 316H stainless steel pipe with a girth weld was investigated by tensile tests of specimens machined from the pipe so that it contained the weld at its centre. The tensile test was recorded using a high resolution digital camera and the DIC technique was used to obtain the complete set of full field displacement maps during the tensile test. The local strain was calculated at every sub-region of 32×32 pixels, which enabled the local stress-strain behaviour for this region to be determined. Results from these tests show the variability of the elastic modulus, yield stress and UTS across the weld. To check the reliability of the technique, a set of micro tensile samples, with gauge length of 3.7mm and crosssectional area of 0.7×0.7 mm2, were machined from the various locations in and around the weld zone. The comparison of stress-strain curves determined from micro-samples to stress-strain curves from the corresponding locations within a larger more conventional tensile specimen shows reasonably good agreement.
Authors: O. Zanellato, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, Mark R. Daymond, Lyndon Edwards, Mark Turski
Abstract: This paper reports results of an in-situ compression experiment carried out on a hot rolled Zircaloy-4 plate at ENGIN-X, ISIS. The experiment was aimed at characterizing the plastic anisotropy of the alloy, which can give rise to high intergranular stresses in the polycrystal. As expected from the crystal anisotropy, the various lattice reflections had very different behaviours. In the compression directions, the basal <0002> reflections appeared to bear much more load than the other planes. The resulting intergranular elastic strains could therefore reach up to 5000 microstrain after 10% total deformation, and were responsible for high type II residual stresses after unloading. Considering the macroscopic behaviour, the normal direction had higher mechanical properties than the other two processing directions. The strong texture measured from EBSD measurements suggest that the crystal anisotropy has been brought to a macroscopic level. The experiment also evidenced a significant change in texture for compression along the rolling direction which indicates twinning activation.
Authors: M.O. Acar, P. John Bouchard, Joao Quinta da Fonseca, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, S. Gungor
Abstract: Neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the weld residual stresses and the intergranular residual strains in butt-welded 316H pipes. Measurements have been made on pipes subjected to varying degrees of plastic pre-straining before welding, in order to assess the effects of plastic strain on the weld residual stresses and the intergranular strains in the material. The intergranular strains following plastic deformation will also be affected by the annealing effect of the welding. Pipes were initially prepared with plastic strain of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% plastic deformation. Thereafter, the pipes were cut in half and welded with a circumferential butt-weld. Bar specimens were extracted from the remote end of the 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% pre-strained and welded pipes. Cross-weld bar specimens were also machined from the 0 and 20% pre-strained and welded pipes. Neutron diffraction measurements were made at ENGIN-X, ISIS and FRM-II, Munich. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intergranular strains developed after pre-straining from measurements made in remote bar specimens from the remote-end of the pipes. The annealing effect of the welding cycle on the intergranular strains is also studied, with measurements done at several points on cross-weld bar specimens, obtaining the strain response of different hkl lattice planes. The results show that the {200} and {220} planes are at the extremes of response during loading. Furthermore, the welding thermal cycling relaxed the intergranular strains from the prior plastic deformation.
Authors: Michael E. Fitzpatrick
Abstract: In this paper, results are presented of the development of internal stresses in 2124 aluminium alloy reinforced with 25% of particulate silicon carbide. Measurements have been made during in situ low-cycle fatigue loading of this composite, using neutron diffraction. The neutron measurements were made using the ENGIN-X diffractometer at the ISIS neutron facility, UK. The results show how the internal stresses evolve with fatigue cycling. Eshelby-based modelling has been used to allow separation of the internal stress components in the MMC.
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