Papers by Author: Michael Ferry

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Authors: Michael Ferry, Wan Qiang Xu, M. Zakaria Quadir, Nasima Afrin Zinnia, Kevin J. Laws, Nora Mateescu, Lalu Robin, Lori Bassman, Julie M. Cairney, John F. Humphreys, Adeline Albou, Julian H. Driver
Abstract: A focused ion beam (FIB) coupled with high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has emerged as a useful tool for generating crystallographic information in reasonably large volumes of microstructure. In principle, data generation is reasonably straightforward whereby the FIB is used as a high precision serial sectioning device for generating consecutive milled surfaces suitable for mapping by EBSD. The successive EBSD maps generated by serial sectioning are combined using various post-processing methods to generate crystallographic volumes of the microstructure. This paper provides an overview of the use of 3D-EBSD in the study of various phenomena associated with thermomechanical processing of both crystalline and semi-crystalline alloys and includes investigations on the crystallographic nature of microbands, void formation at particles, phase redistribution during plastic forming, and nucleation of recrystallization within various regions of the deformation microstructure.
Authors: Michael Ferry, John F. Humphreys
Abstract: Copper single crystals of {110}<001> crystallographic orientation were cold rolled to a true strain of 1.4. Specimens were cut from the as-deformed crystals with all surfaces mechanically ground and deep-etched in concentrated nitric acid to minimise the likelihood of surface nucleation of recrystallized grains during subsequent annealing. The early stages of static recovery were studied by annealing specimens at 300 oC. The crystallographic features of the deformed and annealed microstructures were determined by high resolution electron backscatter diffraction. It was observed that deformation was homogeneous with the microstructure in ND-RD plane exhibiting two complementary sets of intersecting bands at ~+ 35o to ND. Along these bands and in the microstructure, in general, there was an overall spread in orientation about ND towards {110}<112>. However, the orientation spread along these bands was cyclic, that is, sinusoidal orientation gradients were generated about ND with amplitude of up to 20o and wavelength 5-10 µm. Annealing resulted in the preferred growth of cells that have orientations at the edge of the orientation spread of the deformation substructure. This localized coarsening of the microstructure is similar to the discontinuous subgrain growth observed in {110}<001> oriented Al single crystals and indicates that discontinuous subgrain (cellular) growth can also occur in metals of lower stacking fault energy.
Authors: Wan Qiang Xu, Michael Ferry, Julie M. Cairney, John F. Humphreys
Abstract: A typical dual-beam platform combines a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope with a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM). Using FIB-FEGSEM, it is possible to sequentially mill away > ~ 50 nm sections of a material by FIB and characterize, at high resolution, the crystallographic features of each new surface by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The successive images can be combined to generate 3D crystallographic maps of the microstructure. A useful technique is described for FIB milling that allows the reliable reconstruction of 3D microstructures using EBSD. This serial sectioning technique was used to investigate the recrystallization behaviour of a particle-containing nickel alloy, which revealed a number of features of the recrystallizing grains that are not clearly evident in 2D EBSD micrographs such as clear evidence of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) and twin formation and growth during PSN.
Authors: N. Burhan, Michael Ferry
Abstract: Severe plastic straining is an established method for producing submicron grain (SMG) structures in alloys. However, the development of such a fine grained structure in single-phase alloys is usually futile if they are to be exposed or processed at elevated temperatures. This is a direct consequence of the natural tendency for rapid and substantial grain coarsening which completely removes the benefits obtained by grain refinement. This problem may be avoided by the introduction of nanosized, highly stable particles in the metal matrix. In this work, a SMG structure was generated in an Al-0.3 wt.% Sc alloy by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). The alloy was prepared initially to produce a fine grained microstructure exhibiting a large fraction of high angle grain boundaries and a dispersion of nanosized Al3Sc particles. The evolution of microstructure during annealing at temperatures up to 550 °C was examined in detail and grain size distributions generated from the data. It was shown that grain coarsening is rapid at temperatures above 450 °C and the initial log-normal grain size distribution exhibiting low variance and skewness was altered considerably. The statistical information generated from the grain size distributions confirms that discontinuous grain coarsening occurs in this alloy only at temperatures greater than 500 °C.
Authors: John F. Humphreys, Michael Ferry
Authors: M. Zakaria Quadir, Michael Ferry, P. R. Munroe
Abstract: Lamellar bands are the primary structural features in accumulative roll bonding (ARB) of sheet metals. The structural refinement in ARB sheets occur by forming a dense distribution of lamellar band boundaries. The lamellar band boundaries initiate as low angle interfaces, parallel to the existing lamellar band boundaries, irrespective of the crystallographic orientations of the parent lamellar bands. From an extensive investigation it was found that the transverse directions across the lamellar band boundaries are rotated by an angle equal to their misorientations. Such a phenomenon is not sustained when the boundaries turn to high angle.
Authors: Karl F. Shamlaye, Kevin J. Laws, Michael Ferry
Abstract: Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are amorphous alloys that exhibit unique mechanical properties such as high strength due to their liquid-like structure in the vitreous solid state. While they usually exhibit low ductility, they can be toughened by incorporating secondary phase particles within the amorphous matrix via composite fabrication to generate amorphous metal matrix composites (MMCs). Traditional MMCs are fabricated at high temperature in the liquid state with tedious blending processes. This high temperature processing route often leads to unwanted reactions at the reinforcement/matrix interface, creating brittle intermetallic by-products and damaging the reinforcement. In the present work, novel bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) were fabricated at low processing temperatures via thermoplastic forming (TPF) above the glass transition temperature of the amorphous matrix. Here, the unique thermophysical features of the matrix material allow for TPF of composites in non-sacrificial moulds incorporating various types of reinforcement, via processing in the solid state at low temperatures (less than 200 °C), within a short timeframe (less than 10 minutes); this avoids the formation of brittle phases at the reinforcement/matrix interface leading to efficient bonding between particles and matrix, thereby creating a tough, low density composite material.
Authors: M. Zakaria Quadir, Lori Bassman, O. Al-Buhamad, Michael Ferry
Authors: P.A. Manohar, Michael Ferry
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