Papers by Author: Min Chul Kim

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Authors: Byung Hyun Lee, Min Chul Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: We developed new calcium phosphate bone substitute material, amorphous calcium polyphosphate. The new material is synthesized by a cement-like slif-setting reaction with calcium phosphate glass, basic materials and water. In this study, we prepared with CPG, Na2CO3 and NaOH solution. When they are mixed together, amorphous phase was precipitated. The precipitated amorphous phase consisted of polyphosphate chains condensed with Na ions released from Na2CO3 and NaOH. When the amorphous calcium polyphosphate dissolves, inorganic polyphosphates are released into the medium. The inorganic polyphosphates as the dissolution product inducted the calcification of the osteoblast cells. Therefore, in animal test, the new bone formation in rat calvarial defects treated with the new material was significantly higher than sham-surgery control group, especially in the initial stage. The amorphous calcium polyphosphate was biocompatible and bioresorbable and promoted the new bone formation.
Authors: Min Chul Kim, Byung Hyun Lee, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: A numerous techniques have been applied to fabricate three-dimensional scaffolds of high porosity and surface area. And X-ray micro computed tomography can be used studying the architecture of scaffold. In this study, we fabricated three-dimensional macroporous scaffold by polymeric sponge method using calcium phosphate glass. Calcium phosphate glass slurry was prepared by dissolving the glass powder in water polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol and dimethyl formamide. Reticulated polyurethane sponges were used as a template and were coated with the prepared slurry by infiltration technique several times. Sintering at 950oC exhibited dense microstructure as well as entire elimination of organic additives. By repeating the coating and sintering process, it was possible to decrease the pore size and be thick the strut of the structure. The unique feature of the micro computed tomography is that the three dimensions computed reconstruction can be sliced along any direction to gain accurate information on the internal geometric properties and structural parameters of scaffold. Porosity, surface area per unit volume and mean thickness of strut were evaluated through imaging and computer software of scaffold scan data.
Authors: Byung Hyun Lee, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: In preliminary ageing test, the cement using only calcium phosphate glass as power phase cracked with 1 day in simulated body fluid because of high dissolution rate of the cement. We added 30 wt% of either β-TCP or HA to 70 wt% calcium phosphate glass as powder phase to control the dissolution rate of the cement and performed in vitro ageing test in simulated body fluid by dynamic protocol as well as static protocol to confirm the possibility of controlling. Adding either β-TCP or HA to the cement increases the setting time and decreases the compressive strength. In dynamic assay, the pH of extract is maintained over 7. However, pH decreased to around 5 in static assay. Therefore, weight loss by static protocol continuously increased for 14 days, while weight loss by dynamic protocol almost saturated. In XRD patterns of ageing cements, CaO peaks appeared. CaO peak was maximized most lately in dynamic assay of the cement adding HA and within 7 days, the cement adding HA showed higher weight loss. It is indicated that CaO formed in surface of the cement hinder the dissolution of the cement. In addition, compressive strength increased when the CaO peak was maximized.
Authors: Yeon Ung Kim, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: This study presents the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite scaffolds with a small amount of calcium phosphate glass powder as sintering additives. Hydroxyapatite slurry was prepared by suspending the hydroxyapatite and glass powder in water. Polyurethane sponge was used to produce highly macroporous scaffolds. The rheological characteristic of the slurry was measured to identify the effect of adding calcium phosphate glass powder into hydroxyapatite slurry. Sintered scaffolds could be repeatedly coated to improve mechanical properties. Scaffolds prepared by single and double replication cycle process were characterized by density, porosity and compressive strength measurements by increasing amount of the calcium phosphate glass powder to the hydroxyapatite slurry, viscosity by increased more than same amount of pure hydroxyapatite, and the capillary force was similar to pure hydroxyapatite slurry. The compressive strength of the macroporous hydroxyxapatite scaffold containing the calcium phosphate glass powder showed higher value than that of pure hydroxyapatite at single replication cycle. SEM demonstrated that the microstructure of the scaffold became denser with the introduction of the calcium phosphate glass powder. The pore struts were thicker as replication cycle was increased.
Authors: Yeon Ung Kim, Byung Hyun Lee, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: The objective of this study was to produce a macroporous hydroxyapatite(HA) scaffold with high strength by controlling the size of HA particles as well as cooling rate from the sintering temperature. Macroporous polyurethane sponge was employed as template to manufacture the macroporous HA scaffolds. Particle sizes of HA powders selected in this study were 4 µm and 7 µm. They were dispersed in distilled water with organic additives and infiltrated into polyurethane sponge. After drying and sintering at 1300oC, cooled down to room temperature slowly to prevent microcracking either 1oC/min or 3oC/min. Density, porosity and compressive strength were measured with different particle size and cooling rate. Both density and compressive strength were increased with decreasing particle size or cooling rate, while porosity was not related to.
Authors: Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: The development of phosphate glasses for use in orthopaedic implants has attracted much interest because their chemical and physical properties make them suitable for use as bone-bonding materials. We prepared various compositions of CaO-P2O5-MO or CaO-P2O5-M2O (M: K, Li, Na, Mg, Zn) glasses to measure ion release, solubility and bioactivity. The compositions with (Ca,M)/P molar ratio 0.6 were fixed P2O5 mol% content at 45.45 mol%, and varying MO or M2O mol% at 10, 20 and 30 mol%. Ca2+ ion release properties were investigated in 0.1M potassium acetate with pH 6 at 37oC by immersing 50 mg of powder into 100 ml of acidic buffer solution. The highest and lowest extent of released Ca2+ ion was observed for composition with 10 mol% of K2O and 30 mol% of MgO, respectively. The weight loss in distilled water at 37oC was measured. Solubility increased with decreasing CaO content, but decreased with increasing MgO content. Bioactivity in the simulated body fluid at 37oC was measured.
Authors: Yong Keun Lee, Y.S. Park, Min Chul Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Ho Sun Jung, Chang Kuk You, Racquel Z. LeGeros
Authors: J. Kim, J.K. Ryu, Min Chul Kim, Yeon Ung Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cell affinity of calcium phosphate glass scaffold in the system of CaO-CaF2-P2O5-MgO-ZnO, which is already reported that promoted the bone-like tissue formation in vitro and formed new bone in Sprague-Dawley rats. We prepared calcium phosphate glass saffolds with three-dimensionally interconnected pores of 200~500 µm. Commercial HA scaffold was employed as a control in this study. Bone marrow cells were collected from the healthy human donors and cultured within the prepared scaffolds. After 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks, hMSCs/scaffold were fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. hMSCs were continuously proliferated both in the experimental and control groups at every incubation period. The number of cells was higher in the experimental group than that of the control group, however, there was no significant difference (p>0.05). Extracellular matrices could be observed at the 2nd and 4th days in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The extracellular matrices were more abundant in the experimental group at all periods. The prepared calcium phosphate glass scaffolds are expected effective in bone tissue engineering.
Authors: Byung Hyun Lee, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, Kwang Mahn Kim, Seong Ho Choi, Chong Kwan Kim, Racquel Z. LeGeros, Yong Keun Lee
Abstract: The mixed pastes of binary calcium phosphate glass with Ca/P ratio of 0.6 and distilled water were set after about 4 hr, while never set when calcium phosphate glass with Ca/P lower than 0.5. Their compressive strength was ranged from 16.0 to 23.3 MPa. When Na2HPO4 solution was used instead of distilled water as liquid phase, the setting time became drastically much shorter. As the mole concentration of Na2HPO4 solution increased from 0.25 M to 2 M, setting time was shortened to 35 min from almost 3 hr, but compressive strength decreased from 28.8 MPa to 13.2 MPa. At constant mole concentration, as the mass ratio of a powder to liquid ratio increased, setting time was shortened and maximum compressive strength was measured when a powder/liquid ratio was 2.5. However, no crystallized phases were detected either during setting or after complete setting. The XRD , FT-IR and SEM examinations indicated that calcium phosphate glass dissolved and then glass phase precipitated again. We concluded, therefore, that Na2HPO4 just affected the kinetics of dissolution and precipitation of CPG. The mechanism of hardening has yet to be studied.
Authors: S.W. Park, Yong Keun Lee, Yeon Ung Kim, Min Chul Kim, Kyoung Nam Kim, B.J. Choi, H.J. Choi
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the remineralization of enamel in the human tooth by fissure sealant containing various amount of hydroxyapatite. Prior to remineralization experiments, the necessary requirements of the dental fissure sealant, the curing depth and the curing time, were measured with the content of the hydroxyapatite according to the standard of ISO 6874. Various amount of hydroxyapatite was mixed uniformly using sonicator up to 20 wt% to the fissure sealant. In spite both the curing time and the curing depth were decreased with increasing the content of hydroxyapatite, all samples were satisfied the ISO requirements. Remineralization experimental samples were produced by bonding fissure sealant containing various amount of hydroxyapatite to human tooth enamel using manufacturer’s information. After exposure to the simulated body fluid at 36.5oC for 4 weeks, the bonding strength and the surface morphology were examined using Instron and scanning electronic microscope, respectively. The bonding strength between the fissure sealant and the human teeth was drastically enhanced with the amount of hydroxyapatite. The remineralization zone could be observed along with the boundary of hydroxyapatite and fissure sealant using a scanning electronic microscope.
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