Papers by Author: Min Wang

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Authors: Naznin Sultana, Min Wang
Abstract: Poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was used to make composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in our previous studies. To control the degradation rate and process of composite scaffolds, PHBV was blended with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), which has a much higher degradation rate than PHBV, and PHBV/PLLA blends were used as polymer matrices for composite scaffolds. Composite scaffolds based on these blends and containing nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nHA) were fabricated using an emulsion freezing / freeze-drying technique. Non-porous films of PHBV/PLLA blends were prepared using the solvent casting method. In vitro degradation tests of non-porous PHBV/PLLA blends and porous composite scaffolds were conducted by immersing samples in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for various periods of time. It was found that the composition of polymer blends affected water uptake of films and scaffolds. For PHBV/PLLA-based scaffolds, the incorporated nHA particles also significantly increased water uptake within the initial immersion time. Both PHBV/PLLA blends and composite scaffolds underwent rapid weight losses within the first few weeks. The degradation of composite scaffolds arose from the dissolution of nHA particles and degradation of the PLLA component of polymer blends. Composite scaffolds exhibited enhanced adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein, in the current study.
Authors: Xin Zhang, Min Wang, Xiao Yan Yuan, Jia Chen Kang
Abstract: Electrospinning is investigated by many groups around the world for constructing fibrous tissue engineering scaffolds. Incorporating biomolecules such as growth factors in fibers is becoming common for enhancing the biological performance of electrospun scaffolds. However, biomolecules may lose bioactivity if they are exposed to organic solvent during electrospinning. In emulsion electrospinning, an aqueous biomolecule solution is emulsified and water-in-oil emulsions are then electrospun into core-shell structured fibers, with biomolecules being contained in the core of fibers, which helps to avoid biomolecule-solvent contact and also reduce the initial burst release. In this investigation, for a comparative study, poly (L-lactic acid) was made into solid and core-shell structured fibers via conventional electrospinning and emulsion electrospinning, respectively. The two electrospinning techniques and resultant fibers were compared in terms of processing parameters (polymer concentration, applied voltage, working distance, etc.) and fiber characteristics (morphology, diameter, structure, etc.). Solvent properties such as conductivity and volatility affected fiber morphology and diameter. The polymer concentration range usable for emulsion electrospinning was narrower than that for conventional electrospinning owing to changes in viscosity.
Authors: Yi Zhi Chen, Arthur F.T. Mak, Min Wang
Abstract: Using an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF), bone-like apatite can be formed on a variety of biomaterials, bioactive or bioinert, after these materials have undergone appropriate treatment(s). This biomimetic apatite-forming process is now applied to tissue engineering scaffolds in an attempt to make the scaffolds osteoconductive. In the current investigation, to form bone-like apatite on polymers such as poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) which degrade fast in aqueous environment, a solution (5SBF) of five times the ion concentrations of SBF was used so that an accelerated apatite formation could be achieved on PLLA and PGA. It was shown that indeed apatite could be formed on PLLA and PGA in 5SBF within 24 hours and that the apatite formed in 5SBF was similar in morphology and composition to that formed in the classical biomimetic process employing SBF or 2SBF. Results obtained in this investigation are very useful for producing osteoconductive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
Authors: Jia Chen Kang, Min Wang, Xiao Yan Yuan
Abstract: Electrospinning of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and gelatin separately to form nonwoven PLLA or gelatin nanofibrous membranes was investigated. Factors that could affect the fiber morphology and fiber diameter were studies for PLLA and gelatin, respectively. The polymer solution concentration was found to play a dominant role in the formation of defected or nondefected ultrafine fibers. Using a specially designed experimental setup with separate syringe pumps for polymer solutions and separate power supplies for high voltages for electrospinning, PLLA-gelatin bicomponent fibrous membranes were formed with PLLA fibers interweaving with gelatin fibers. Multicomponent fibrous scaffolds can be very useful for tissue engineering and/or controlled release applications.
Authors: Jin Ming Wu, Min Wang, Akiyoshi Osaka
Abstract: A bioactive composite coating consisting of one layer of titania and one layer of apatite was formed on Ti substrate. The first layer of crystalline titania was deposited on Ti at low temperatures either through oxidation of Ti by hydrogen peroxide solution or through hydrolysis of TiF4 or TiCl4 solution. It was shown that the crystalline titania, either in the form of anatase or rutile, induced formation of the second layer of apatite in a simulated body fluid. However, the trace elements in the titania layer affected greatly apatite formation. The Cl incorporated in the titania layer did not hinder apatite formation while F did. The two-layer composite coating should enhance bonding of Ti implants to bone tissue.
Authors: Tao Sun, Min Wang
Abstract: To improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of titanium and titanium alloys, a titanium oxide layer was synthesized on Ti, Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) using a H2O2-oxidation and hot water aging technique. The surface of these metals before and after the oxidation treatment was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Because of the synthetic titanium oxide surface layer, the Al and V contents on the surface of as-oxidized Ti-6Al-4V decreased significantly. Similarly, the Ni content on the surface of as-oxidized NiTi SMA was also significantly reduced. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the synthetic titania layer was more chemically stable than the spontaneous titania film on the metals. Among the three metals, the oxide layer on Ti was the most stable chemically. The in vitro bioactivity of as-oxidized metals was assessed through incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). Compared to as-oxidized Ti-6Al-4V and NiTi SMA, as-oxidized Ti was the most bioactive.
Authors: Chong Wang, Sze Nga Tong, Yuk Hang Tse, Min Wang
Abstract: Over the past decade, intensive research has been conducted on electrospinning of fibrous tissue engineering scaffolds and their applications in body tissue regeneration. For providing multifunctions and/or enhancing the biological performance, drugs or biomolecules can be incorporated in electrospun fibers using normally one of these techniques: (1) direct dissolution, (3) emulsion electrospinning, and (3) coaxial electrospinning. In this investigation, for constructing nanofibrous delivery vehicles, conventional electrospinning using polymer solutions with directly dissolved drugs or biomolecules and emulsion electrospinning were studied and compared. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein and the drug was rifamycin, a hydrophobic antibiotic. A poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) containing the protein or drug was electrospun into fibers. In these two routes of fabricating drug-or biomolecule-loaded nanofibers, different polymer concentrations and emulsion formulations were investigated. Various aspects of the fibrous delivery vehicles were investigated using several techniques and the in vitro release behaviour was studied.
Authors: Min Wang, Ya Liu, Chun Ling Au, Pik Ki Lai, Lai Yee Leung, Boon Heng Chua
Abstract: By mimicking the microstructure of human cortical bone, a variety of bioactive particle reinforced polymer composites have been developed for hard tissue repair. Apart from biological assessments, these composites must be fully evaluated in terms of their mechanical performance before they can be used in patients. The bioactive particles in these composites are normally hard (relative to matrix materials) and brittle bioceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA), tricalcium phosphate (TCP), Bioglass, etc. The matrices can be either “biostable” polymers such as high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polysulfone (PSU) or biodegradable polymers such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA). These polymers on their own possess different mechanical properties and display different deformation behaviours. With the incorporation of various amounts of particulate HA, TCP or Bioglass, the bone analogue polymeric composites exhibit a spectrum of deformation and fracture characteristics. In our systematic studies of HA/HDPE, Bioglass/HDPE, HA/PSU, HA/PHB, TCP/PHB and a few other bone analogues biomaterials over the past fifteen years, mechanical tests were conducted under a variety of loading conditions (tension, compression, bending, torsion, etc.). Comparisons of deformation and fracture behaviours of these composites were made and presented. The insights that have been gained are important for developing other bioactive ceramic-polymer composites.
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