Papers by Author: Nong Moon Hwang

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Authors: Dong Kwon Lee, Sung Il Park, Jong K. Lee, Nong Moon Hwang
Abstract: Recently, gram quantities of monodisperse gold or silver nanoparticles were reported to be produced through a digestive ripening process, in which colloidal particles of size 2 to 40 nm are transformed to nearly monodisperse particles of 4 ~ 5 nm diameter. Digestive ripening, an example for an inverse Ostwald ripening process, is a puzzling phenomenon since it appears to go against the usual capillary effect, i.e., reduction of interfacial free energy. A theoretical model is presented, which accounts for the monodisperse state of such nanoparticles by considering the effect of charges on the particles and thus electrostatic energy during particle size evolution.
Authors: Nong Moon Hwang
Abstract: Abnormal grain growth (AGG), which is also called the secondary recrystallization, often takes place after primary recrystallization of deformed polycrystalline materials. A famous example is the evolution of the Goss texture after secondary recrystallization of Fe-3%Si steel. A selective AGG of Goss grains has remained a puzzle over 70 years in the metallurgy community since its first discovery by Goss in 1935. We suggested the sub-boundary enhanced solid-state wetting as a mechanism of selective AGG of Goss grains. According to this mechanism, if Goss grains have sub-boundaries of low energy, they have an exclusively high probability to grow by solid-state wetting along a triple junction compared with other grains without sub-boundaries. This aspect has been confirmed by Monte-Carlo and Phase Field Model simulations. The simulations showed that if the abnormally-growing grain has a high fraction of low energy boundaries with the matrix grains, it favors the sub-boundary enhanced solid-state wetting and produces many island and peninsular grains frequently observed near the growth front of abnormally-growing Goss grains. For example, the {111}<112> orientation has a S9 relationship with a Goss grain. Therefore, grains with the {111}<112> orientation provide a favorable condition for sub-boundary enhanced solid-state wetting. Three or four-sided grains with convex-inward boundaries, which are observed on a two-dimensional section of polycrystalline structures, are not shrinking but are growing, indicating that they are growing by wetting along a triple junction. These and other microstructural evidences of solid-state wetting could be observed relatively easily near the growth front of abnormally-growing Goss grains. The existence of sub-boundaries exclusively in abnormally-growing Goss grains has been experimentally confirmed. In order to understand why only Goss grains have sub-boundaries, the cold rolling process of the hot-rolled Fe-3%Si steel was analyzed by finite element method (FEM). The analysis showed that a small portion of Goss grains formed during hot rolling survives after cold rolling; the survived Goss grains have the lowest stored energy and are expected to undergo only recovery without recrystallization, producing sub-boundaries.
Authors: Kyung Jun Ko, Pil Ryung Cha, Jong Tae Park, Jae Kwan Kim, Nong Moon Hwang
Abstract: Abnormal grain growth (AGG) takes place in many metallic systems especially after recrystallization of deformed polycrystals. A famous example of AGG in metallic system is the Goss texture in Fe-3%Si steel. During high temperature annealing of Fe-3%Si sheet, a few near Goss {110} <001> grains grow exclusively fast and consume the matrix grains. Therefore, the grains which have near Goss orientation have special advantage over other grains. As a new approach to the growth advantage of AGG, we suggested the solid-state wetting mechanism, where a grain wets or penetrates the grain boundary or the triple junction of its neighboring grains. The solid-state wetting mechanism for the evolution of the Goss texture in Fe-3%Si steel was studied experimentally and by phase-field model (PFM) simulation.
Authors: Young Jo Park, Nong Moon Hwang, Duk Yong Yoon
Authors: Ho Seok Nam, Nong Moon Hwang, B.D. Yu, D.Y. Kim, J.K. Yoon
Authors: Kee Hyun Kim, Nong Moon Hwang, Byeong Joo Lee, Jong Kyu Yoon
Abstract: Mechanical properties of line pipe steels used in the deep sea or in the severe cold climate depend on alloying elements and manufacturing processes and many efforts have been made to enhance the properties of the line pipe steels. In this study, for systematic approaches to the process design of line pipe steels, its phase diagram was calculated using a Thermo-CalcTM program. The calculations indicated that A3 is around 840oC. Setting the FRT(Finish Rolling Temperature) above A3 appears to be critical to the increase of strength and toughness of line pipe steels by increasing the amounts of acicular ferrite and at the same time by decreasing the precipitation of proeutectoid ferrite. In the case of the FRT below A3, relatively large amounts of proeutectoid ferrite are precipitated from the matrix with the carbon contents of the austenite phase around ferrite being enriched.
Authors: Hyun Park, Young Chang Joo, Doh Yeon Kim, Jong Tae Park, Jae Kwan Kim, Nong Moon Hwang
Authors: Nong Moon Hwang
Abstract: Although it has been generally believed that the advantage of the grain boundary mobility induces abnormal grain growth (AGG), it is suggested that the advantage of the low grain boundary energy, which favors the growth by solid-state wetting, induces AGG. Analyses based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation show that the approach by solid-state wetting could explain AGG much better than that by grain boundary mobility. AGG by solid-state wetting is supported not only by MC simulations but also by the experimental observation of microstructure evolution near or at the growth front of abnormally growing grain. The microstructure shows island grains and solid-state wetting along grain boundary and triple junction.
Authors: Kyung Jun Ko, Pil Ryung Cha, Nong Moon Hwang
Authors: Kyung Jun Ko, Pil Ryung Cha, Jong Tae Park, Jae Kwan Kim, Nong Moon Hwang
Abstract: Phase-field model (PFM) in multiple orientation fields was used to simulate the grain growth in three-dimensions (3-D) for isotropic and anisotropic grain boundary energy. In the simulation, the polycrystalline microstructure was described by a set of non-conserved order parameters and each order parameter describes each orientation of grains. For isotropic grain boundary energy, the simulation showed the microstructure evolution of normal grain growth. For anisotropic grain boundary energy, however, the simulation showed that certain grains which share a high fraction of low energy grain boundaries with other grains have a high probability to grow by wetting along triple junctions and can grow abnormally with a growth advantage of solid-state wetting. The PFM simulation shows the realistic microstructural evolution of island and peninsular grains during abnormal grain growth by solid-state wetting.
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