Papers by Author: P. John Bouchard

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Authors: Lyndon Edwards, Mike C. Smith, Mark Turski, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, P. John Bouchard
Abstract: The safe operation of both thermal and nuclear power plant is increasingly dependent upon structural integrity assessment of pressure vessels and piping. Furthermore, structural failures most commonly occur at welds so the accurate design and remnant life assessment of welded plant is critical. The residual stress distribution assumed in defect assessments often has a deciding influence on the analysis outcome, and in the absence of accurate and reliable knowledge of the weld residual stresses, the design codes and procedures use assumptions that yield very conservative assessments that can severely limit the economic life of some plant. However, recent advances in both the modeling and measurement of residual stresses in welded structures and components open up the possibility of characterising weld residual stresses in operating plant using state-of–the–art fully validated Finite Element simulations. This paper describes research undertaken to predict residual stresses in stainless steel welds in order to provide validated reliable, accurate Structural Integrity assessment of nuclear power plant components
Authors: D. George, David John Smith, P. John Bouchard
Authors: M.O. Acar, P. John Bouchard, Joao Quinta da Fonseca, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, S. Gungor
Abstract: Neutron diffraction has been used to investigate the weld residual stresses and the intergranular residual strains in butt-welded 316H pipes. Measurements have been made on pipes subjected to varying degrees of plastic pre-straining before welding, in order to assess the effects of plastic strain on the weld residual stresses and the intergranular strains in the material. The intergranular strains following plastic deformation will also be affected by the annealing effect of the welding. Pipes were initially prepared with plastic strain of 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% plastic deformation. Thereafter, the pipes were cut in half and welded with a circumferential butt-weld. Bar specimens were extracted from the remote end of the 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25% pre-strained and welded pipes. Cross-weld bar specimens were also machined from the 0 and 20% pre-strained and welded pipes. Neutron diffraction measurements were made at ENGIN-X, ISIS and FRM-II, Munich. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intergranular strains developed after pre-straining from measurements made in remote bar specimens from the remote-end of the pipes. The annealing effect of the welding cycle on the intergranular strains is also studied, with measurements done at several points on cross-weld bar specimens, obtaining the strain response of different hkl lattice planes. The results show that the {200} and {220} planes are at the extremes of response during loading. Furthermore, the welding thermal cycling relaxed the intergranular strains from the prior plastic deformation.
Authors: Foroogh Hosseinzadeh, P. John Bouchard, Jonathan A. James
Abstract: The residual stress field in a compact tension specimen blank extracted from a non-stress-relieved thick section butt weld has been measured using neutron diffraction and the slitting method. Significant triaxial residual stresses were found in the specimen that is normally assumed to be stress free. Moreover the level of stress was sufficient to make a significant contribution to the crack driving force in creep crack growth tests. The benefits of using more than one measurement technique in such investigations are demonstrated.
Authors: Steve K. Bate, P. John Bouchard
Abstract: The continued safe and reliable operation of plant invariably has to consider the assessment of defects in welded structural components. This requires some estimate of the residual stresses that have developed during the welding fabrication process. For as-welded structures these stresses can be of yield magnitude. Engineering critical assessment procedures such as R6, BS 7910, FITNET and API 579-1 provide simplified estimates, bounding profiles or advice on detailed analysis or measurement which can be applied to provide conservative estimates of the remaining life of plant. The use of finite element analysis (FEA) is being applied more frequently to predict residual stresses in welded components for assessment purposes. This calculation involves complex non-linear analyses with many assumptions. As a consequence, the accuracy and reliability of solutions is variable. In order to improve the consistency of weld modelling, and hence the accuracy and confidence in their use, a set of Guidelines covering the calculation of residual stresses have been developed. The residual stress calculations need to be validated before the results can be used in assessments and guidance on how to demonstrate the required standard of validation proof is provided with these Guidelines. The level of validation required, depends on the problem being solved and the sensitivity of the assessment to the presence of residual stress. For example a high level of validation may be required for assessments of safety critical plant. To support these calculations, measurements are required and a series of ‘Weld Residual Stress Benchmarks’, describing welded mock-ups which have been measured using various measurement techniques, are being collated which the users can then refer to when validating their finite element modelling techniques and thus provide a greater confidence in the predicted results.
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