Papers by Author: Rachael L. Myers-Ward

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Authors: Brenda L. VanMil, Kok Keong Lew, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Ronald T. Holm, D. Kurt Gaskill, Charles R. Eddy
Abstract: Real-time analysis of downstream nitrogen process-gas flows during 4H-SiC growth is reported. A Hiden Analytical HPR-20 quadrupole mass-spectrometer (QMS) was used to measure the process gas composition in the gas-stream of a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. Using the 28 amu peak, it was found that the nitrogen partial pressure measured by the mass spectrometer directly correlates to the expected partial pressure of nitrogen in the process cell based on input flows. Two staircase doping samples were grown to track doping variations. The nitrogen mass flow was varied and corresponded to doping levels ranging from 1x1015 cm-3 to 8x1018 cm-3. Electron and nitrogen concentrations in the epilayers were measured by capacitancevoltage (CV) profiling and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), respectively. These efforts show real-time QMS monitoring is effective during growth for determining relative changes in nitrogen concentration in the gas flow, and thus, the level of nitrogen incorporation into the growing layer.
Authors: Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Olof Kordina, Z. Shishkin, Shailaja P. Rao, R. Everly, Stephen E. Saddow
Abstract: Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was added to a standard SiC epitaxial growth process as an additive gas. A low-pressure, hot-wall CVD reactor, using silane and propane precursors and a hydrogen carrier gas, was used for these experiments. It is proposed that the addition of HCl suppresses Si cluster formation in the gas phase, and possibly also preferentially etches material of low crystalline quality. The exact mechanism of the growth using an HCl additive is still under investigation, however, higher growth rates could be obtained and the surfaces were improved when HCl was added to the flow. The film morphology was studied using SEM and AFM and the quality with LTPL analysis, which are reported.
Authors: Charles R. Eddy, Ping Wu, Ilya Zwieback, Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Joseph L. Tedesco, Andrew E. Souzis, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Knoop microhardness assessments were conducted on a variety of 6H- and 4H-SiC substrates to assess any appreciable differences that may need to be considered in wafer manufacture and general application. Nitrogen-doped, vanadium-doped and unintentionally doped (UID) substrates with both on-axis and 8° off-axis orientations were assessed. In general, the Knoop hardness values fell in the 2000 to 2500 kg/mm2 range (equivalent to approximately 20 to 25 GPa). Hardness values measured in the <1100> crystal direction were significantly higher than in the <11-20> direction. Undoped and vanadium-doped samples were harder than nitrogen-doped samples. For both 6H and 4H nitrogen-doped samples, the hardness was as much as 10% higher for 8° offcut wafers than for on-axis.
Authors: D. Kurt Gaskill, Jennifer K. Hite, James C. Culbertson, Glenn G. Jernigan, Joseph L. Tedesco, Luke O. Nyakiti, Virginia D. Wheeler, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, N.Y. Garces, Charles R. Eddy
Abstract: The growth of epitaxial graphene on C-face 6H-SiC substrates is investigated using pro-cess conditions that can form small, local areas of graphene. The thickness of SiC lost to Si sublimation is not completely countered by the thickness of the resulting graphene and so graphene-covered basins (GCBs) are formed. The GCBs are most likely nucleated at threading dislocations from the substrate. The GCB morphology exhibits ridges, similar to those found on continuous films. The GCBs expand through erosion of the surrounding SiC substrate walls, eventually coalescing into continuous films. The ratio of the Raman D and G peaks was used to estimate the crystallite length scale and it was found to be about 200 nm for small GCBs and > 1 m for continuous films.
Authors: Scott G. Walton, Sandra C. Hernández, Mira Baraket, Virginia D. Wheeler, Luke O. Nyakiti, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: In this work, the treatment of epitaxial graphene on SiC using electron beam generated plasmas produced in mixtures of argon and oxygen is demonstrated. The treatment imparts oxygen functional groups on the surface with concentrations ranging up to about 12 at.%, depending on treatment parameters. Surface characterization of the functionalized graphene shows incorporation of oxygen to the lattice by disruption of ∏-bonds, and an altering of bulk electrical properties.
Authors: Eugene A. Imhoff, Karl D. Hobart, Francis J. Kub, M.G. Ancona, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, N.Y. Garces, Virginia D. Wheeler, Luke O. Nyakiti, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Integration of patterned ballast resistance into the anode of SiC PiNs is a solution to the dilemma of negative dVf /dT for such diodes. In fabricated 4H-SiC PiN diodes, we demonstrate a cross-over from negative to positive temperature coefficient for current densities as low as 80 A/cm2. Adjusting the percentage of the patterned anode area, the positive or neutral dVf /dT can be achieved over a wide current-density range without substantial penalty in the forward voltage drop. This characteristic is crucial for high-power SiC packages with ganged-parallel rectifier arrays.
Authors: D. Kurt Gaskill, Jun Hu, X. Xin, Jian Hui Zhao, Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Charles R. Eddy
Abstract: The effects of proton irradiation on uv 4H-SiC single photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs) are reported. The SPADs, grown by chemical vapor deposition, were designed for uv operation with dark count rates (DCR) of about 30 kHz and single photon detection efficiency (SPDE) of 4.89%. The SPADs were irradiated with 2 MeV protons to a fluence of 1012 cm-2. After irradiation, the I-V characteristics show forward voltage (<1.9 V) generation-recombination currents 2 to 3 times higher than before irradiation. Single photon counting measurements imply generation-recombination centers created in the band gap after irradiation. For threshold voltage ranging from 23 to 26 mV, the 4H-SiC SPAD showed low DCR (<54 kHz) and high SPDE (>1%) after irradiation. The SPADs demonstrated proton radiation tolerance for geosynchronous space applications.
Authors: Nadeemullah A. Mahadik, Robert E. Stahlbush, Syed B. Qadri, Orest J. Glembocki, Dimitri A. Alexson, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Joseph L. Tedesco, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: The structure of various inclusions in SiC epitaxial layers grown on 4o offcut substrates was investigated using three advanced techniques. Using micro-Raman spectroscopy, the observed inclusions exhibited a complex structure having either different SiC polytypes like 3C or 6H or they were misoriented 4H-SiC inclusions. The UVPL images showed dislocations and other extended defects around the inclusion-related defects, and strain fields were observed in the x-ray topographs near the defect sites. Spectral UVPL imaging shows features with varying luminescence inside the inclusion related defects which propagate and may cause deformation in the crystalline structure and lead to non-radiative recombination centers within the defect.
Authors: Joshua D. Caldwell, Travis J. Anderson, Karl D. Hobart, James C. Culbertson, Glenn G. Jernigan, Fritz J. Kub, Joseph L. Tedesco, Jennifer K. Hite, Michael A. Mastro, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Charles R. Eddy, Paul M. Campbell, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on the carbon-face of SiC has been shown to exhibit high carrier mobilities, in comparison to other growth techniques amenable to wafer-scale graphene fabrication. The transfer of large area (>mm2) graphene films to substrates amenable for specific applications is desirable. We demonstrate the dry transfer of EG from the C-face of 4H-SiC onto SiO2, GaN and Al2O3 substrates via two approaches using either 1) thermal release tape or 2) a spin-on, chemically-etchable dielectric. We will report on the impact that these transfer processes has upon the electrical properties of the transferred EG films.
Authors: Paul B. Klein, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Kok Keong Lew, Brenda L. VanMil, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill, Amitesh Shrivastava, Tangali S. Sudarshan
Abstract: The temperature dependence of the carrier lifetime was measured in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers of varying Z1/2 deep defect concentrations and layer thicknesses in order to investigate the recombination processes controlling the carrier lifetime in low- Z1/2 material. The results indicate that in more recently grown layers with lower deep defect concentrations, surface recombination tends to dominate over carrier capture by other bulk defects. Low-injection lifetime measurements were also found to provide a convenient method to assess the surface band bending and surface trap density in samples with a significant surface recombination rate.
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