Papers by Author: Rafal M. Molak

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Authors: M. Kartal, Rafal M. Molak, Mark Turski, S. Gungor, Michael E. Fitzpatrick, Lyndon Edwards
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a method of extracting local mechanical properties from weld metal by strain mapping using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The feasibility of determining local stress-strain behaviour in the weld zone of a 316H stainless steel pipe with a girth weld was investigated by tensile tests of specimens machined from the pipe so that it contained the weld at its centre. The tensile test was recorded using a high resolution digital camera and the DIC technique was used to obtain the complete set of full field displacement maps during the tensile test. The local strain was calculated at every sub-region of 32×32 pixels, which enabled the local stress-strain behaviour for this region to be determined. Results from these tests show the variability of the elastic modulus, yield stress and UTS across the weld. To check the reliability of the technique, a set of micro tensile samples, with gauge length of 3.7mm and crosssectional area of 0.7×0.7 mm2, were machined from the various locations in and around the weld zone. The comparison of stress-strain curves determined from micro-samples to stress-strain curves from the corresponding locations within a larger more conventional tensile specimen shows reasonably good agreement.
Authors: Kinga Rodak, Jacek Pawlicki, Krzysztof Radwański, Rafal M. Molak
Abstract: In this study, commercial Cu was subjected to plastic deformation by compression with oscillatory torsion. Different deformation parameters were adopted to study their effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu. The deformed microstructure was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) facility and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The mechanical properties were determined on an MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation. Can be found, that process performed at high compression rate and high torsion frequency is recommended for the refining grain size. The size of structure elements: average grain size (D) and subgrain size (d) reached 0.42 m and 0.30 m respectively, and the fraction of high angle boundaries was 35%, when the sample was deformed at a torsion frequency f= 1.6 Hz and compression rate v=0.04 mm/s. Deformation at these parameters leads to an improvement in strength properties. The strength properties are about two times greater than the initial state.
Authors: Barbara Romelczyk, Tomasz Brynk, Rafal M. Molak, Anna Jastrzębska, Katarzyna Nowak, Zbigniew Pakiela
Abstract: Miniaturized Disc-Bend Test (MDBT), also called the Small Punch Test (SPT) is used for characterizing the mechanical properties of metals, when only a small volume of material is available. This study was dedicated to investigating the mechanical properties of AZ91 magnesium cast alloy. The casts were prepared via gravity sand casting and have sections with different wall thickness. The examined samples were cut out of 30 mm and 10 mm thick walls. The correlation between results obtained from the tensile tests and MDBT was determined.
Authors: Rafal M. Molak, Zbigniew Pakiela
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of large plastic strain on the microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminium processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD) by the Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) method. Polycrystalline high purity aluminium (99,99%) was pressed at room temperature to produce samples subjected to 4, 8 and 12 ECAP passes. The microstructure of aluminium was examined using a light polarized microscope. Microhardness measurements and tensile tests were undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of the material processed by ECAP. The results obtained show the relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the material.
Authors: Kinga Rodak, Krzysztof Radwański, Rafal M. Molak
Abstract: . In this study, commercial Al was subjected to plastic deformation by multi-axial compression. The microstructure and mechanical properties in dependence on effective strain were studied. Aluminum was processed to effective strain f = 9.6. The misorientation distribution and subgrain/grain size were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) facility. The dislocation microstructure was investigated by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The mechanical properties as: yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), uniform and total elongation were performed on MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation method (DIC). Deformation of Al by the multi-axial compression leads to grain refinement to ultra-fine grains (UFGs) and improvement in strength properties. Material exhibits the following strength parameters: UTS: 129 MPa, YS: 124 MPa after deformation at f = 9.6. These values are about two times higher compared with initial state.
Authors: Rafal M. Molak, M. Kartal, Zbigniew Pakiela, W. Manaj, Mark Turski, S. Hiller, S. Gungor, Lyndon Edwards, Krzysztof Jan Kurzydlowski
Abstract: The aim of this collaborative study was to measure mechanical properties of 14MoV67-3 steel taken from small sections of material machined in-situ from an operating high pressure collector pipe after different operating lifetimes (from 0h to 186 000h) at elevated temperatures (540°C). Conventional methods of measuring mechanical properties of materials, such as the uniaxial tensile test require relatively large test samples. This can create difficulties when the amount of material available for testing is limited. One way of measuring mechanical properties from small quantities of material is using micro tensile test samples. In this work, micro-samples with a total length of 7.22mm were used. Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) was employed for the strain measurements in a uniaxial tensile test. This paper shows that there is measurable difference in the yield, ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure as a function of the plant operating conditions. This work demonstrates, therefore, a ‘semi-invasive’ method of determining uniaxial stress-strain behaviour from plant components.
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