Papers by Author: Rhys Pullin

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Authors: Rhys Pullin, Pete T. Theobald, Karen M. Holford, S.L. Evans
Abstract: This paper reports on a method for numerically modelling acoustic emission signals in simple plate geometries using dispersion curves. It is demonstrated how, by using a known source to sensor distance, it is possible to determine the arrival of the frequencies of the individual AE modes at the sensor face. Assumptions based on sensor frequency response and the amplitude of individual modes allow for an approximation of each mode arriving at the sensor face. These modes are then summed to provide a numerical model of the expected signal. Results of the model are compared with a recorded signal and show good correlation, this is further demonstrated by comparing the wavelet transforms of the modelled and recorded signal.
Authors: Muhamad Bunnori Norazura, Rhys Pullin, Karen M. Holford, R.J. Lark
Abstract: Acoustic Emission (AE) testing in concrete structures shows great potential for monitoring and assessing the health condition of structures. Source location is normally based on the arrival times of transient signals, the simplest method is known as the Time of Arrival (TOA) method, where the location of the damage can be determined from the arrival time of the event at two or more sensors. When using this method, the wave velocity of the signals that propagate through the material needs to be determined. Homogenous materials, such as steel, have welldefined velocities, but in non-homogeneous materials such as concrete the wave velocity is more difficult to predict. This makes the use of a single wave velocity as required in the TOA method very difficult due to the variety of wave velocities obtained, especially for large structures. This paper explores wave propagation in concrete structures over a variety of source to sensor distances. Experiments were performed on a reinforced concrete beam and a reinforced concrete slab, using an Hsu-Nelsen (H-N) Source. It is found that, in general, as the source to sensor distance increases, the wave velocity decreases. The presence of longitudinal and transverse waves is demonstrated and the influence of the part of the waveform used for temporal measurement is explored. In order to provide a practical approach to velocity determination, different thresholds are investigated and the results are discussed in relation to the wave modes present.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, Mark J. Eaton, James J. Hensman, Karen M. Holford, Keith Worden, S.L. Evans
Abstract: This work forms part of a larger investigation into fracture detection using acoustic emission (AE) during landing gear airworthiness testing. It focuses on the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to differentiate between fracture signals and high levels of background noise. An artificial acoustic emission (AE) fracture source was developed and additionally five sources were used to generate differing AE signals. Signals were recorded from all six artificial sources in a real landing gear component subject to no load. Further to this, artificial fracture signals were recorded in the same component under airworthiness test load conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to automatically differentiate between AE signals from different source types. Furthermore, successful separation of artificial fracture signals from a very high level of background noise was achieved. The presence of a load was observed to affect the ultrasonic propagation of AE signals.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, James J. Hensman, Karen M. Holford, Keith Worden, S.L. Evans
Abstract: Acoustic emission monitoring was completed on a painted aerospace grade steel landing gear component undergoing fatigue loading until rupture. A post-test linear location analysis of the collected signals revealed eleven groups where high activity (greater than 2000 hits) occurred within a defined location, three of which corresponded in location to the position of fracture and final rupture of the specimen. Feature data, such as amplitude, rise-time, energy etc. were used to describe the identified signals in each group. A dimension reduction through principal component analysis of the feature data of all groups was performed. Results showed that high amplitude signals associated with four groups of signals arising from noise could be separated from the fracture groups. However four groups not associated with noise or the known positions of the fracture groups were not separable from the signals attributed to fractures. The paint layer of the specimen was removed and a magnetic particle investigation was completed that showed these four groups coincided with regions of additional fracture in the component.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, Karen M. Holford, R.J. Lark, P. Beck
Authors: Mark J. Eaton, Karen M. Holford, C.A. Featherston, Rhys Pullin
Abstract: The presence of impact damage in a carbon fibre composite can reduce its capacity to support an in-plane load, which can lead to an unexpected or premature failure. This paper reports on an investigation into two slender carbon/fibre epoxy panels, one un-damaged and one with an artificial delamination introduced using an embedded section of PTFE. The reported tests form part of a larger series of investigations using differing sizes of artificial delamination and real impact damage. An investigation of wave velocity propagation at varying angles to the composite lay up was completed to assist in source location. The specimens were loaded under, uniaxial in-plane loading and monitored using four resonant acoustic emission sensors. A full field optical measurement system was used to measure the global displacement of the specimens. Analysis of AE waveforms and AE hit rate were used to assess the buckling of the panel. The results compared favourably with the optical measurement results.
Authors: Mark J. Eaton, Rhys Pullin, C.A. Featherston, Karen M. Holford
Abstract: Damage detection and location in aerospace composites is currently of great interest in the research community and is being driven by the need to reduce weight of commercial aircrafts and hence make substantial environmental improvements. The increased use of composites as safety critical components has led to the need for development of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Acoustic Emission (AE) offers an excellent potential for delivering the necessary information of damage detection to maintenance engineers in terms of location however there are currently no methodologies that can use AE signals to characterise damage sources. This paper explores a methodology for damage characterisation based on measuring the amplitude ratio (MAR) of the two primary plate wave modes, to allow identification of in-plane (matrix cracking) and out-of-plane sources (delamination). Results from a large-scale buckling test show good correlation between signal characterization and observed damage mechanisms.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, Karen M. Holford, S.L. Evans, M.G. Baxter
Abstract: Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was performed on an aluminium landing gear component that was undergoing testing to investigate its fracture resilience. The type of component was identified from FE analysis and previous fatigue testing. The component was loaded in fatigue for 500 flight cycles before re-greasing of the bearings. After 2,000 cycles the component was removed for NDT inspection. The AE investigations were implemented after 83,000 flight cycles had been completed. NDT at this point had shown that the component contained no damage. This paper presents the findings of the final 2,000 cycles monitored. The AE investigation detected and located, using both linear and planar location approaches, one region of activity around the grease pin. Fretting damage at this location was confirmed using dye pentrant testing. It was also shown that the increase in rate of detected activity is a significant tool in the identification of damage in landing gear components.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, Mark J. Eaton, Matthew R. Pearson, Christopher Pollard, Karen M. Holford
Abstract: Composite patch repairs are being increasingly used throughout bridge structures in the UK. These patches offer a convenient and strong repair providing that the bond used to adhere the patch to the structure retains its integrity. Acoustic emission (AE), a passive approach and Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU), an active approach offer two methodologies for monitoring the structural bond and ensuring the patch repair remains effective. An experimental program was developed to assess the suitability of using AE and AU for monitoring the bond. Two concrete beams were manufactured and pre-cracked in three point bending prior to being repaired using a bonded composite patch. Two static tests were then completed to assess the performance of the two techniques for monitoring the bond. Results were compared with strain gauges adhered to the bonded patch and visual observation. For active monitoring a baseline of signals were captured at a known load and post damage a further series was captured at the same load. The signals sets were then compared using a cross correlation function technique. A simple accumulative acoustic energy analysis was then completed for the passive data. Results demonstrated that both techniques can be utilised to monitor the bonded structure. By comparing the results with those recorded by the strain gauges and visual inspection it was possible to demonstrate the successful effectiveness of the techniques for detecting global damage but specific debonding events would require further investigations.
Authors: Rhys Pullin, Matthew R. Pearson, Mark J. Eaton, Carol A. Featherston, Karen M. Holford, Alastair Clark
Abstract: The ability of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to automatically identify damage in a composite structure is a vital requirement demanded by end-users of such systems. This paper presents the demonstration of a potential method. A composite fatigue specimen was manufactured and initially tested at 1Hz for 1000 cycles. Acoustic emission (AE) signals were recorded for complete fatigue cycles periodically in order to establish a base-line associated with undamaged specimens. The specimen was then subjected to impact damage to create barely-visible impact damage (BVID) and subjected to further fatigue cycles with acoustic emission recorded until failure. The data was subsequently analysed using a range of techniques including basic RMS signal levels and frequency-based analysis. At various stages during the test, C-scanning was used to validate the results obtained. Results demonstrated that AE is capable of detecting BVID in composite materials under fatigue loading. The proposed method has wide applicability to composite structures which are subjected to cyclic loading, such as wind turbine blades.
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