Papers by Author: S. Eric Offerman

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Authors: Roumen H. Petrov, Orlando León-García, Hemant Sharma, Kyoo Young Lee, S. Eric Offerman, Leo Kestens
Abstract: Texture formation during an austempering treatment of a TRIP-assisted steel was studied by in-situ texture measurements with a high energy source (synchrotron). Samples from a cold rolled sheet were subjected to a complete heat treatment cycle for TRIP steels including reheating to the intercritical (α+γ) temperature region, isothermal soaking and bainitic holding (austempering) at 400°C for 600s. At specific points of the thermal cycle {200}γ, {220}γ {222}γ, {331}γ and {200}α, {211}α and {220}α Debye rings were recorded and the corresponding incomplete pole figures were calculated. The latter were used to derive the orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of BCC and FCC phases at specific steps of the annealing process after assuming the orthotropic sample symmetry. The acquired data for the texture evolution during the α–γ–α phase transformation showed that during the reheating for intercritical annealing the gamma phase with {011} orientation is among the first to nucleate from the recrystallized α phase during heating and the Goss and Cube orientations are among the principal gamma phase components which transform to BCC phase after cooling.
Authors: S. Eric Offerman, Henrik Strandlund, Niels H. van Dijk, Jilt Sietsma, Erik M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, Henning Friis Poulsen, John Ågren, Sybrand van der Zwaag
Abstract: Ferrite formation during austenite decomposition in carbon-manganese steel is studied during slow continuous cooling by three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy at a synchrotron source. The ferrite fraction and nucleation rate are measured simultaneously and independently in real time in the bulk of the specimen. Thermodynamic calculations involving both ortho- and paraequilibrium have been performed to determine the driving force for nucleation. From the experiments and thermodynamic calculations the activation energies are estimated for nucleation and the transfer of iron atoms across the interface of the cluster during ferrite nucleation in steel.
Authors: V.I. Savran, S. Eric Offerman, Niels H. van Dijk, Erik M. Lauridsen, L. Margulies, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract: Studying austenitisation in steel, so far, was either limited to observations at the surface of the material or to the determination of the average grain growth behavior in the bulk. The development of the three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope at beam line ID11 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, made it possible to study the transformation kinetics in-situ and at the level of individual grains in the bulk of the material. Unique in-situ observations of austenite growth kinetics during continuous heating experiments were made for two commercial low-alloy steels (C22 and C35). The observed growth behavior of individual austenite grains gives a valuable contribution to understanding the phase transformations on heating, i.e. austenite formation from ferrite and pearlite.
Authors: Emine Gözde Dere, Hemant Sharma, S. Eric Offerman, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract: The precipitation of NbC in austenite is an important mechanism for improving the strength of steel because NbC-precipitates are known to decrease the ferrite grain size during the subsequent phase transformations upon cooling. The effect of the interaction between niobium (Nb) in solid solution and NbC-precipitates on the austenite-to-ferrite phase-transformation kinetics is not entirely clear. We study a high-purity Fe-C-Mn-Nb alloy cooled at different rates. Different annealing times at 850°C were applied to create different number densities and sizes of the NbC-precipitates in order to study the effect of NbC precipitation on the transformation kinetics. The alloy that is used in this study has an atomic ratio of Nb:C=1.3:1. The fraction of ferrite is measured as a function of temperature during cooling by means of dilatometry. The ferrite grain size is measured by means of optical microscopy. The results are interpreted with thermodynamic and kinetic models.
Authors: H. Landheer, S. Eric Offerman, Roumen H. Petrov, Leo Kestens
Abstract: The relationship between the misorientation of the austenite crystallites and the favoured sites for ferrite nucleation has been investigated. Ex-situ EBSD measurements were performed on an especially developed high purity ternary iron alloy with 20 wt.% Cr and 12 wt.% Ni with both austenite and ferrite present at room temperature to measure the misorientation between the austenite crystallites. The experimental results are compared to the nucleation models of Clemm and Fisher and Aaronson and co-workers.
Authors: H. Landheer, S. Eric Offerman, R.H. Petrov, Leo Kestens
Abstract: The role of the α/γ orientation relationships during ferrite nucleation is investigated. EBSD measurements were performed on an especially developed high purity ternary iron-based alloy with 20 wt.% Cr and 12 wt.% Ni with both austenite and ferrite present at room temperature to measure the orientation relationship between the austenite and ferrite crystallites. The experimental results are compared to the nucleation models of Clemm and Fisher and Aaronson and co-workers.
Authors: Leo Kestens, Kim Verbeken, R. Decocker, Roumen H. Petrov, Patricia Gobernado, S. Eric Offerman
Abstract: It is often assumed that the texture formation during solid state transformations in low carbon steels critically depends on the local crystallographic misorientation at the interface between transformed and not yet transformed material volume. In some cases, a theoretical crystallographic orientation relation can be presumed as a necessary prerequisite for the transformation to occur. Classical examples of such misorientation conditions in steel metallurgy are the orientation relations between parent and product grains of the allotropic phase transformation from austenite to ferrite (or martensite) or the hypothetical <110>26.5º misorientation between growing nuclei and disappearing grains in a recrystallization process. One way to verify the validity of such misorientation conditions is to carry out an experiment in which the transformation is partially completed and then observe locally, at the transformation interface, whether or not the presumed crystallographic condition is complied with. Such an experiment will produce a large set of misorientation data. As each observed misorientation Dg is represented by a single point in the Rodrigues-Frank (RF) space, a distribution of discrete misorientation points is obtained. This distribution is compared with the reference misorientation Dgr, corresponding to a specific physical condition, by determining the number fraction dn of misorientations that are confined within a narrow misorientation volume element dw around the given reference misorientation Dgr. In order to evaluate whether or not the proposed misorientation condition is obeyed, the number fraction dn of the experimentally measured distribution must be compared with the number fractions dr obtained for a random misorientation distribution. The ratio dn/dr can be interpreted as the number intensity fi of the given reference misorientation Dgr. This method was applied on the observed local misorientations between the recrystallizing grains growing into the single crystal matrix of a Fe-2.8%Si alloy. It was found that the number intensity of the <110>26.5º misorientation increased with a factor 10 when the misorientation distribution was evaluated before and after the growth stage. In another example the method was applied to the misorientations measured at the local interface between parent austenite and product martensite grains of a partially transformed Fe-28%Ni alloy. It could be established that the Nishiyama- Wasserman relations ({111}g//{110}a <112>g//<110>a) prevail over the Kurdjumov-Sachs relations ({111}g//{110}a and <110>g//<111>a) although a considerable scatter was observed around either of the theoretical correspondences. A full parametric misorientation description was also applied to evaluate the relative grain boundary energies associated with a set of crystallographic misorientations observed near triple junctions in Fe-2%Si. In this instance it was found that the boundaries carrying a misorientation of the type <110>w carry a lower interfacial energy than the <100> or <111> type boundaries.
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