Papers by Author: Sandy To

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Authors: Chi Fai Cheung, Wing Bun Lee, Sandy To, H.F. Li, Su Juan Wang
Abstract: The fabrication of high-quality optical microstructural surfaces is based on fast tool servo (FTS) machining. It makes use of auxiliary piezo-electric driven servos to rapidly actuate the diamond tool with a fine resolution and a sufficiently high bandwidth for machining optical microstructures with submicrometer form accuracy and a nanometric surface finish without the need for any subsequent post processing. However, the achievement of a superior mirror finish and form accuracy still depends largely on the experience and skills of the machine operators, acquired through an expensive trial-and-error approach to using new materials, new mircostructural surface designs, or new machine tools. As a result, this paper, a model-based simulation system is presented for the optimization of surface quality in the FTS machining of optical microstructures. Preliminary experimental work and the results are also presented.
Authors: Ling Bao Kong, Chi Fai Cheung, Wing Bun Lee, Sandy To
Abstract: This paper presents an integrated platform for modelling and measurement of freeform surface generation in ultra-precision raster milling. It is composed of several components which are optics design component, tool path generator, modelling system, measurement system, evaluation component, compensation component and optimization component, respectively. The research emphasizes on modelling and simulation of freeform surface generation, the prediction of the cutting performance and hence the optimization of cutting strategy in the ultra-precision raster milling of freeform surfaces. A measurement system is also proposed to carry out a fast and efficient measurement plan of freeform surfaces. Non-uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) will be employed for the development of the integrated platform which will meet Standard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP).
Authors: M.N. Cheng, Chi Fai Cheung, Wing Bun Lee, Sandy To
Abstract: Ultra-precision raster milling is an emerging manufacturing technology for the fabrication of high precision and high quality components with a surface roughness of less than 10 nm and a form error of less than 0.2 μm without the need for any subsequent post polishing. Surface quality of a raster milled surface is affected by process factors and material factors, respectively. The process factors involve cutting conditions, cutting strategies, and relative vibration between the tool and the workpiece which are related to the cutting geometry and the dynamic characteristics of the cutting process. The material factors considered are material property and swelling of the work materials. Due to different cutting mechanics, the process factors affecting the surface quality are more complicated, as compared with ultra-precision diamond turning, such as swing distance and step distance. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the distinctive process factors affecting the surface roughness in ultra-precision multi-axis raster milling. Experimental results indicate that the influence due to the process factors can be minimized through a proper selection of operational settings and better control of dynamic characteristics of the machine.
Authors: H.F. Li, Chi Fai Cheung, Ling Bao Kong, Wing Bun Lee, Sandy To
Abstract: Ultra-precision freeform surfaces have become widely used in advanced optics manufacture. Although these surfaces can be fabricated by ultra-precision freeform machining technology with sub-micrometer form accuracy and surface finish in nanometer range, our current understanding on the evaluation of surface quality of these surfaces is still far from perfect. In this paper, a study of measurement technology for ultra-precision freeform surfaces is presented.
Authors: Sandy To, Chi Fai Cheung, Su Juan Wang, Wing Bun Lee
Abstract: Optical communication is gaining popularity in telecommunications; most obviously evident is the increase in demand for a large variety of fiber optic components. V-groove structure quality is critical to the functionality of the fiber connector as it governs the position of the optic fibers. The main parameters, which determine the V-groove quality, include core pitch, surface roughness and the position of centerline. In this paper, a series of cutting conditions were applied to investigate the effect of different machining parameters on the V-groove quality. In the experiment, the V-groove structure is machined by a 40° single crystal diamond tool on aluminium alloy with different cutting conditions. Based on the findings, the relationship between the cutting conditions on the surface roughness was explored. The implications of these findings on the improvement of the surface finish of V-groove profile are discussed.
Authors: Yi Ping Chen, Wing Bun Lee, Sandy To
Abstract: An accurate prediction of plastic anisotropy induced by initial texture in sheet metal forming operations depends on the constitutive models adopted. Models of engineering interest include both phenomenological formulations and crystal plasticity based on dislocation slip. In addition to the above two approaches that are commonly adopted in FE analysis, now an alternative is available which describes anisotropic behavior of polycrystalline sheet metals still by an analytic yield function to keep the computing time as low as possible but at the same time which also takes explicitly into account the crystallographic texture of the material to give a more precise description of plasticity anisotropy. However, the locus of such a yielding potential determined by constitutive coefficients upon invoking the rate-independent crystal plasticity may exhibit an unrealistic concave shape, which will make it impossible to obtain a convergent solution. To circumvent the difficulty, a detailed computation procedure is presented to calculate the constitutive coefficients based on rate-dependent crystal plasticity. The combination of the coefficients obtained with experimentally measured texture coefficients of an annealed FCC polycrystalline sheet metal will provide a complete constitutive characterization of the material. As an application of the calibrated model, the process of deep drawing by hemispherical punch is simulated, in which plastic anisotropy (earring) corresponding to typical texture type is observed, thus demonstrating the applicability of the coefficients found.
Authors: Su Juan Wang, Chi Fai Cheung, Sandy To, Wing Bun Lee
Abstract: Recently, the high quality and high productivity in fabrication of freeform optics has been of primary interest in manufacturing industries, such as die and mould manufacturing, aerospace part manufacturing, and so forth. However, the fabrication of freeform optics is currently expensive and vastly complex. Ultra-precision raster milling can produce non-rotational symmetric surfaces with sub-micrometric form accuracy and nanometric surface finish without the need for any subsequent post polishing. While, there is little research work focus on this kind of machining method. This paper presents a framework of a tool path generation system for freeform surface ultra-precision raster milling. This system includes model of freeform optics, tool path generator, interference monitor and an optimization model of machining parameters. The tool path generation system can generate interference free and optimal tool path for machining freeform surfaces. Some simulation results have been presented to illustrate the performance of the system.
Authors: Wing Bun Lee, Yi Ping Chen, Sandy To
Abstract: A rate-dependent crystal plasticity constitutive model together with Marciniak- Kuczynski(M-K) approach is employed to perform numerical simulations of forming limits diagrams(FLDs). An initial imperfection in terms of a narrow band is adopted to initialize the sheet necking. Homogeneous deformations inside and outside the band are assumed and the enforcement of compatibility and equilibrium conditions is required only on the band interface. Constitutive computations are carried out on two aggregates of FCC crystal grains, with each representing one of the two zones, respectively. Taylor homogenization assumption is employed to establish the link of stress between single crystal and polycrystal, and to derive an average response of the aggregates. The same initial texture is imparted to the two aggregates and their evolutions will be traced in the necking process. Factors affecting the FLDs prediction, such as imperfection intensity, initial texture, strain rate sensitivity and crystal elasticity will be taken into account. The above procedure will be applied to an annealed aluminium alloy sheet metal
Authors: Chi Fai Cheung, Tsz Chun Kwok, Sandy To, Wing Bun Lee, Xiang Qian Jiang, H.F. Li
Abstract: This paper presents a study of effect of cutting conditions on surface quality in FTS machining of optical microstructures such as micro-lens array. A power spectrum analysis is proposed to characterize the surface quality in FTS machining. It is found that there is a strong relationship between the surface roughness and the power spectrum of the surface profile. This provides an important means for the characterization of surface quality in FTS machining of optical microstructures.
Authors: Jian Guang Li, Wing Bun Lee, Chi Fai Cheung, Sandy To, J.J. Du, Z.Q. Yin
Abstract: Virtual manufacturing (VM), which primarily aimed at reducing the lead times to market and costs associated with new product development, offers various test-beds for the time-consuming and expensive physical experimentation. Since surface roughness and form accuracy play essential roles in the functional performance of the products machined with ultra-precision machining technology. An optimizer, VSPDT (virtual single point diamond turning) system was developed for the purpose of form error compensation and optimal cutting parameters selection. In this paper, the keys issues for developing VSPDT using virtual manufacturing technology were highlighted such as framework of system, virtual workpiece, virtual machining and inspection, etc. At the end of the paper, A VSPDT was developed and applied to predict and compensate the form error, select optimal cutting parameters by using a 2-axis CNC ultra-precision turning machine.
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