Papers by Author: Steve Yue

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Authors: Ahmad Rezaeian, Faramarz Zarandi, D.Q. Bai, Steve Yue
Abstract: The hot strip rolling of advanced microalloyed high strength steels still represents a new task to many mills due to the lack of data on the hot deformation resistance. With the aid of processing data from the Ispat-Inland hot strip mill, the “measured mean flow stresses” are calculated from the mill force using the Sims analysis and taking into account roll flattening, slip ratio and the redundant strain. A modification of the Misaka mean flow stress equation is proposed for C – Mn – Si – Al steels microalloyed with up to 0.02 % Nb. The effects of alloying and microalloying are then estimated. A new fitting parameter shows excellent agreement with the mean flow stress data from industrial processing of advanced high strength microalloyed steels. However, during the second half of the rolling schedule (lower temperature region), indications of austeniteto- ferrite transformation were found.
Authors: Wilson Wong, Ahmad Rezaeian, Eric Irissou, Jean Gabriel Legoux, Steve Yue
Abstract: Ti and Ti-6Al-4V coatings were deposited by cold gas dynamic spray process using nitrogen as propellant gas. For Ti, the inlet gas temperature and pressure were varied for two different powder morphologies in such a way that the average particle velocity ranged from ~600 to 850 m/s. In addition, the nozzle traverse speed was varied. For all conditions, the deposition efficiency, the porosity, and the microhardness were measured. It is shown that the porosity level decreased as the gas temperature and pressure increased, whereas the velocity, deposition efficiency, and microhardness increased. Furthermore, it is observed that a lower nozzle traverse speed engendered a softer coating. The coating adhesion on a grit 24 Al2O3 blasted mild steel surface was established to be greater than 78.8 MPa. In addition, a Ti-6Al-4V coating was produced and was determined to be slightly more porous compared to a CP Ti coating.
Authors: Jing Su, Abu S.H. Kabir, Steve Yue
Abstract: Magnesium AZ31 alloy sheets were rolled at 100 °C at a high rolling speed of 1000 m/min. After 30% reduction, the microstructure was heavily twinned and shear banded, while a partially dynamically recrystallized and twinned microstructure was seen at the reduction of 49%. The as-rolled specimens were then annealed at 500 °C for increasing times. Microstructure and texture were characterized by optical microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Texture weakening was found during annealing of the specimens at both reductions. However, the texture weakening was more effective in the fully twinned and shear banded specimen than the partially DRXed and twinned specimen. Effects of as-rolled microstructure on static recrystallization characteristics and texture evolution during annealing were studied.
Authors: A. Najafi-Zadeh, John J. Jonas, Steve Yue
Authors: Faramarz Zarandi, Steve Yue
Abstract: Low hot ductility of steel at the straightening stage of the continuous casting process is a problem found in steels containing microalloying and/or certain alloying additions. The thermal schedule undergone by the billet surface in the mill has a significant effect on the hot ductility. In this work, thermomechanical processing was employed to alleviate the problem of hot ductility in the Nb-microalloyed steel. Specimens were melted in situ and subjected to the billet surface thermal schedule in order to generate a microstructure similar to that present at the straightening stage of the continuous casting process. Some deformation schedules were incorporated with the thermal schedule at very high temperatures, specifically during solidification, within the d-ferrite region, and during the d®g transformation, and the hot ductility was subsequently evaluated at the end of the thermal schedule where the straightening operation is performed. After the thermal schedule alone, the steel exhibited a very low hot ductility at the straightening stage. It was found that deformation at very high temperatures prior to the straightening stage had a considerable effect on the hot ductility, either detrimental or beneficial, depending on the region in which the deformation has been executed. The mechanisms leading to loss and improvement of hot ductility are explained in this paper.
Authors: L. Shang, Steve Yue, Elhachmi Essadiqi, A. Javaid, Jon T. Carter, Ravi Verma
Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of the as-cast microstructure on the hot working behavior of an AZ31 magnesium alloy, specimens were cast in copper moulds with and without water cooling. A series of compression tests were performed at a temperature of 350 °C, a strain rate of 0.01 s-1, and at strains up to 1.0. It was found that as-cast microstructure is very sensitive to the solidification conditions, which leads to a significant difference in flow behavior and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics. It appears that more uniform and refined as-cast grain size promotes dynamic recrystallization and reduces the flow stress. It is also possible that second phases (>1+m in size) contribute to DRX by acting as nuclei.
Authors: A.M. Elwazri, Steve Yue
Abstract: The relationship between mechanical properties and pearlite microstructure was investigated using various heat treatments on a hypereutectoid steels containing 1% carbon with different levels of vanadium and silicon. Specimens were heat treated at various temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200°C and transferred to salt bath conditions at 550, 580 and 620°C to examine the structural evolution of pearlite. The results show that the thickness of the cementite network increases with increasing reheat temperature. This is likely due to the larger austenite grain size reducing the grain boundary area available for proeutectoid cementite nucleation. It was found that the vanadium and silicon additions increased the strength of hypereutectoid steels through refinement of the microstructure and precipitation strengthening.
Authors: Phuong Vo, Mohammad Jahazi, Steve Yue
Abstract: The recrystallization behaviour of near-alpha titanium alloy IMI834, which is primarily used for high temperature aerospace compressor disc applications, has been investigated at hot working temperatures. The latest results of a finite element model, developed using the commercial code DEFORM-3D with constitutive equations adapted from available literature, will be presented. Model development and validation involved the hot compression of specimens with an initial bimodal alpha+beta microstructure at temperatures of 1000°C-1100°C, strain rates of 0.01s 1-1s 1, and varied post-deformation annealing times. The characterization of microstructure through quantitative metallography revealed beta grain refinement achieved primarily through static/metadynamic recrystallization. The beta recrystallization kinetics were subsequently predicted through an Avrami-type relationship.
Authors: Rocco Varano, A.M. Elwazri, Fulvio Siciliano, D.Q. Bai, Raynald Gauvin, Steve Yue
Abstract: Precipitation strengthening is an important parameter controlling the mechanical properties of low carbon steels. These precipitates are very fine and are normally analyzed using either thin foils or carbon extraction replicas under a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this work, field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was applied successfully in the characterization of niobium (Nb) carbo-nitride (C,N) precipitates using carbon extraction replicas. FE-SEM observation of high strength linepipe steel replicas before and after aging at 400°C for 1 hr confirmed the presence of Nb(C,N) precipitates in ferrite. The FE-SEM could analyze small particles (below 50 nm) embedded in the steel but the analysis had to be carried out at low voltages to maximize spatial resolution resulting in a poor signal. However, carbon extraction replicas in the FE-SEM can be analyzed using high voltages, since the interaction volume effect is no longer a problem.
Authors: Peter D. Hodgson, John J. Jonas, Steve Yue
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