Papers by Author: Tetsuo Shoji

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Authors: K. Watanabe, T. Yamamoto, Tetsuo Shoji
Abstract: The primary objective of this study is to develop a quantitative model to predict the effects of materials, environment and mechanics such as loading configuration on environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) of stainless steels in high-temperature water. It has basically been accepted that crack propagation in oxygenated high temperature water is controlled by a slip-dissolution and/or deformation-oxidation mechanism. According to this mechanism, the crack-tip strain rate is an extremely important mechanical parameter for determining the crack growth rates. Based upon a formulation obtained by combining Faraday’s equation with an elastic plastic analysis of the strain singularity at a growing crack-tip in work hardening materials, a theoretical formulation of crack-tip strain rate has been derived for plane strain and plane stress conditions. The FEM analysis for 3D crack growth can be compared to the theoretical 2D analysis. In this paper, we first make a CCP (Center Crack Plane) model, and performed a 3-dimensional Finite Element Analysis (3D-FEA) to evaluate the crack-tip stain rate paying attention to the element mesh size and to the loading history. After optimization these parameters, the calculated crack-tip strain distribution, including its logarithmic singularity, was founded to agree well with the theoretical distribution. The significance of the crack-tip strain rate upon the crack-tip strain distribution and crack growth rate was demonstrated. The specimen size effects on crack growth rates were discussed from this point of crack-tip strain distribution. Finally, we focused on the importance of crack-tip strain rate as a unique mechanical parameter that controls the crack growth rate.
Authors: Sung Jae Kwon, Kazuhiro Ogawa, Tetsuo Shoji
Abstract: The fracture mechanics characteristics in the critical locations of the wheelset for high-speed train have not been studied enough yet despite of severe conditions due to increase in operating speeds. Moreover, the fracture mechanics characteristics with respect to the aging effects of wheelset materials have not been clearly studied. In the present study, the following fracture mechanics characterization tests were carried out in accordance with various locations on the wheelset for high-speed train: fracture toughness depending on load rate, fatigue crack growth rate and fatigue thresholds. The results show that the fatigue crack growth rates in accordance to the locations on wheelset were not remarkably different, and the fatigue threshold in the region of the bolt-hole is lower than that in other regions. The fracture toughness depending on load rate data shows that once the downward curve from quasi-static values was reached, subsequent values showed a slow increase with respect to the impact velocity. This means that dynamic fracture toughness should be considered in the design code of the wheelset material.
Authors: Akira Kai, Yuichiro Terayama, Kazuhiro Ogawa, Tetsuo Shoji
Authors: Yo-ichi Takeda, M. Bojinov, Hannu Hänninen, P. Kinnunen, T. Laitinen, K. Mäkelä, T. Saario, K. Sakaguchi, Tetsuo Shoji, P. Sirkiä, A. Toivonen
Abstract: A possible approach to describe the role of the environment in the phenomena behind crack initiation and crack propagation in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is to assume that the transport of species through the oxide film on the material surface is one of the rate-controlling factors. The transport rates of ionic and electronic defects through the oxide film are, in addition to the environment, also affected by the stress and strain applied to the bulk material. In this paper, the surface oxide film formed on AISI 316L steel in slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in simulated BWR condition has been analyzed by using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The obtained film composition and structure have been combined with in-situ contact electric resistance (CER) measurements in order to evaluate the changes in oxide film electric properties during straining in the above environment. The results show that oxide film resistance of the strained part exhibits a maximum at around 2% of strain, which seems to correlate with a maximum in the Cr(III) concentration in the inner layer of the oxide. The implications of these results to SCC are discussed based on Mixed-Conduction Model (MCM).
Authors: Tomiharu Matsushita, Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz, Y.H. Joo, Tetsuo Shoji
Authors: Toshimitsu Baba, Kazuhiro Ogawa, Tetsuo Shoji
Abstract: A novel non-destructive inspection (NDI) technique that utilizes high-frequency signal transmission characteristics was developed as a more reliable, faster and cheaper NDI technique. This technique forms a transmission circuit that includes the specimen, and detects the signals generated by any surface breaking-defect. In this research, quantitative measurement of closed fatigue cracks was implemented via a newly developed probe. The greatest advantage of this technique is that there is no significant difference in detection of defects in either paramagnetic materials or in ferromagnetic materials. Therefore, the potential effects of corrosion, ferrite content, or deformation martensite on the measurement signals are minimized, and a better S/N ratio can be expected. This technique can also be used to measure the size of defects in components, including welded components, and its detection sensitivity is less than 1 mm for surface breaking-defects.
Authors: Jerome Isselin, Sheng Chun Wang, Shinichi Komazaki, Tetsuo Shoji
Abstract: We are developing a Small-Punch SCC testing apparatus with an in-situ observation system applied to high temperature water and high pressure. This new testing apparatus is used to evaluate the Environmentally Assisted Cracking effect. A constant loading rate was carried out with different values of speed, of water flow rate and different polishing of the sample. In BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) conditions (9MPa and 288°C) it was found that the loading rate, water flow rate and surface preparation of the sample have some influence if the test is performed during a short time (maximum 4 days). After the test, by SEM observation, studying the secondary microcracks, it is possible to find all the sequences of EAC process. The in-situ observation system permits to study the strain of the sample during the test.
Authors: Seok Jin Kwon, Kazuhiro Ogawa, Tetsuo Shoji
Abstract: In general, the S-N curve in railway axles was mainly carried out under 107-108 cycles, while the service area of a railway axle is 108-109 cycles. The strain gages using electrical resistance have been used to measure stresses in railway vehicle wheelsets. However, there are some problems with strain gages using electrical resistance for railway axles. For example, the measured data is for special or limited intervals only. Strain gage installation is complicated, that is, it requires lead wires for measurement. The design of railway axles makes use of data that was obtained many years ago. The applied stresses in wheelsets running for a long time and in new railway vehicle wheelsets have not been studied clearly yet. It is necessary to carry out stress monitoring for more than 108 cycles to evaluate the safety of railway wheelset. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new stress monitoring techniques that can easily measure the working stress of the wheelset. In the present paper, the stress measurement technique of copper electroplating is considered because of its high potential for this purpose.
Authors: Masatoshi Tanno, Kazuhiro Ogawa, Tetsuo Shoji
Abstract: It is well known, that thermally grown oxide (TGO) forms at the interface between the thermal barrier top coating (TBC) and the bond coating during service. In previous work, SEM images showed that the TGO layer contained at least two layers with different oxides. One layer was Al2O3, and the other was a mixed oxide of NiO, CoO, Cr2O3, and their spinels. It was supposed that a reason for macro-crack formation near an interface is due to a decrease in bond strength or to the formation of stress concentration sites caused by the formation of pores in the mixed oxide. In order to improve the bond strength, a modified bond coating material was developed, which is MCrAlY with Ce and Si added. Four- point bending tests were carried out to measure the bond strength of conventional TBC and of the modified TBC with MCrAlYCeSi bond coating. As a result, the TBC with modified bond coating had a bond strength superior to the conventional one. It is likely that the reason for the superior bond strength is due to a notable difference in oxidation behavior.
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