Papers by Author: Vanessa Livramento

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Authors: Jose Brito Correia, Vanessa Livramento, Nobumitsu Shohoji, Elena Tresso, Kazunori Yamamoto, Tomitsugu Taguchi, Kotaro Hanada, Eiji Osawa
Abstract: Copper has widespread use as engineering material, because of its structural and functional properties, notably high thermal and electrical conductivity. A major drawback of this base metal and its alloys is a relatively low hardness. This precludes its utilization in applications in which both high conductivity and high strength/hardness are needed, e.g. in injection moulds for plastics. Nanostructured metals and nanocomposites are ways to address the low hardness problem, provided the nanostructured material is thermally stable during processing and service. In the present research, composite powders, with 5 to 30 at % nanodiamond, were consolidated into bulk samples. The copper-nanodiamond composite powders were vacuum encapsulated and extruded at 600°C. A significant proportion of the initial hardness in the powders is retained after extrusion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the extruded material indicates good bonding between the nanodiamond particles and the copper matrix. Raman spectroscopy on the consolidated samples evidences the presence of graphite, possibly due to partial disintegration of ultradisperse nanodiamond agglomerates.
Authors: Vanessa Livramento, Jose Brito Correia, Filipe Neves, Rosa Calinas, M. Teresa Vieira
Abstract: Copper nitride films prepared by sputtering have applications such as optical data storage material, insulation barriers in micro electronic devices and coatings for mechanical applications. The present study examines nanocomposites prepared by mechanical alloying of copper with copper nitride under nitrogen atmosphere, at room temperature, in order to establish a comparison with properties of Cu-N sputtered films. The powders were consolidated into bulk samples via warm extrusion at temperatures ranging from 300 to 500°C (0.42-0.64 Tf) after encapsulation without degassing. The as-milled powders and the extruded materials were studied using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. Also, the TEM observation of the extruded sample indicates a mean grain size of about 50 nm. This evidences a higher thermal stability of the as-milled powders and the advantage of using a fast consolidation process, at a relatively low temperature. Therefore, the consolidated material did not show the dramatic softening associated with recrystallization. The consolidation of nanostructured copper-copper nitride composite powders via warm extrusion, without major grain coarsening, was demonstrated.
Authors: Daniela Nunes, Vanessa Livramento, Jose Brito Correia, Kotaro Hanada, Patrícia Almeida Carvalho, R. Mateus, Nobumitsu Shohoji, H. Fernandes, C. Silva, Eduardo Alves, Eiji Osawa
Abstract: Due to their interesting properties copper-based materials have been considered appropriate heat-sinks for first wall panels in nuclear fusion devices. The concept of property tailoring involved in the design of metal matrix composites has led to several attempts to use nanodiamond (nDiamond) as reinforcement. In particular, nDiamond produced by detonation has been used to reinforce copper. In the present study, powder mixtures of copper and nDiamond with 20 at. % C were mechanically alloyed (MA) and consolidated via hot extrusion or spark plasma sintering (SPS). The hardness evolutions as well as the structural characterization of as-milled nanocomposite powders and consolidated samples are reported. Density measurements indicate that the consolidation outcome varies significantly with the process used. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) inspection of the extrusion consolidated sample revealed bonding at the interface between copper and nDiamond particles. The nDiamond size distribution was determined from TEM observations. The results obtained are discussed in terms of consolidation routes.
Authors: Vanessa Livramento, Jose Brito Correia, Filipe Neves, Nobumitsu Shohoji, Carmen M. Rangel
Abstract: Depending on the energy level used during mechanical alloying, the constitution of the resulting products can vary extensively. With high energy input, full transformation to the equilibrium phase, FeTi, is achieved. In contrast, for low levels of energy input, the process is akin to mixing without any phase transformation even for extended milling periods. In the present work, nanostructured FeTi powders were produced by mechanical alloying, avoiding the unfavourable agglomeration problem, by using a relatively low level of energy (e.g. 300 rpm) to mill the pure metallic constituents, Fe and Ti, followed by subsequent heat treatment at 800°C. A major achievement of this research was to show that, by modulating the milling intensity and total milling time, the high temperature synthesis reaction of FeTi (1100°C) can be partially or totally suppressed, reverting instead to a metastable reaction path at low temperature (650°C). The mechanical “activation” modifies the reactivity of the system, producing a very thin Ti /Fe layers. That in conjunction with a high level of defects induced mechanically may be responsible for the metastability. Partial substitution of Fe with Ni (10%) resulted essentially in the same phase constitution, indicating solid solution of Ni in FeTi replacing partially Fe lattice positions.
Authors: Isabel M. Martins, S. Vieira, Vanessa Livramento, João Bessa Sousa, Francisco Delmas, Manuela Oliveira, M. Teresa Vieira
Authors: Daniela Nunes, Vanessa Livramento, Horácio Fernandes, Carlos Silva, Nobumitsu Shohoji, José B. Correia, Patricia A. Carvalho
Abstract: Nanostructured copper-diamond composites can be tailored for thermal management applications at high temperature. A novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed for the production of this type of materials: a Cu-nDiamond composite produced by high-energy milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer sized diamond. The former offers strength and microstructural thermal stability while the latter provides high thermal conductivity. A series of Cu-nDiamond mixtures have been milled to define the minimum nanodiamond fraction suitable for matrix refinement and thermal stabilization. A refined matrix with homogenously dispersed nanoparticles could be obtained with 4 at.% nanodiamond for posterior mixture with mDiamond and subsequent consolidation. In order to define optimal processing parameters, consolidation by hot extrusion has been carried out for a Cu-nDiamond composite and, in parallel, for a mixture of pure copper and mDiamond. The materials produced were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.
Authors: Vanessa Livramento, M.T. Marques, Jose Brito Correia, Amélia Almeida, Rui Vilar
Abstract: The present study examines nanocomposites prepared by mechanical alloying of copper with other transition elements, which will produce a dispersion of stable boride and carbides reinforcement particles within a nanostructured copper matrix, at room temperature. Copper, niobium, boron and graphite powder mixtures were mechanically alloyed for several hours in a planetary ball-mill, in argon atmosphere and using a stainless steel container. The powder mixtures were produced with nominal composition of 10-30 vol.% NbC and 7-10 vol.% NbB2, using powders of pure elemental Cu, Nb, synthetic graphite and crystalline boron. The microstructural changes during milling of these powder mixtures were studied using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.
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