Papers by Author: Warren J. Poole

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Authors: Matthias Militzer, Thomas Garcin, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: Laser ultrasonics for metallurgy (LUMet) is an innovative sensor technology for in-situ measurement of microstructure evolution during thermomechanical processing. This unique sensor has been attached to a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator for dedicated laboratory studies during processing of steel, aluminum, magnesium and titanium samples. Advanced processing software has been developed for the measurement of grain size and texture evolution from laser ultrasonic signals. Results of austenite grain growth measurements in low carbon steels will be described to demonstrate the capabilities of the LUMet technique. Further, applications of the system to measure recrystallization of ferrite and austenite formation during intercritical annealing simulations of dual phase steels will be presented. The ability to rapidly acquire data both during a single test and for multiple conditions over a range of conditions from different samples has important implications on expediting process modelling and alloy design. Although certain limitations exist, the LUMet technique offers a very reliable characterization platform with a number of potential applications in metallurgical process engineering.
Authors: S. Sarkar, Mary A. Wells, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: An investigation was conducted on the softening behaviour of cold rolled continuous cast (CC) AA5754 Al alloy and compared to the results for the ingot cast (IC) material. The present study suggests that the CC material exhibits greater resistance to softening as compared to the IC AA5754 for the same amount of cold deformation. The differences in the softening kinetics become more noticeable with increasing level of cold deformation and from a processing point of view can be attributed to the absence of the homogenization stage during the processing of the CC material. Resistivity measurements were carried out during the annealing treatment of the CC materials to examine the possibility of concurrent precipitation, which could potentially retard the softening kinetics for these materials. In addition, the current research reveals that the CC material produces a finer recrystallized grain size as compared to the IC material.
Authors: M. Mazinani, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: The deformation behaviour of martensite and its effect on tensile properties of a lowcarbon dual-phase (DP) steel were investigated. DP steel samples with different martensite contents and morphologies were produced after intercritical annealing at different temperatures using low and high heating rates. Two distinct martensite morphologies were obtained for low and high heating rates. The investigated steel showed the unusual results that the true fracture stress and strain were found to increase with the martensite volume fraction. The plastic deformation of martensite was considered to be responsible for these results. Experimentally, it was observed that the martensite in DP steels with greater than 25-30% martensite can deform plastically during tensile straining. Finally, the effect of tempering on the martensite plasticity was also evaluated. It was found that the tempering process and an increase in the martensite content have a similar effect on promoting martensite plasticity.
Authors: Xi Wang, Warren J. Poole, J. David Embury, David J. Lloyd
Abstract: The application of 6000 series alloys is widespread and of particular importance to the automotive sector. Their functionality depends on the detailed behaviour of the strengthening phases. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) supplemented with a variety of mechanical tests were used to examine the precipitates and their role in aspects such as the Bauschinger effect, damage and fracture events, and in recovery and recrystallization processes.
Authors: B. Raeisinia, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: This paper examines the challenges which are encountered when using electrical resistivity measurements for characterization of microstructures in aluminum alloys. Experimental examples are provided of electrical resistivity studies conducted on two aluminum alloys, a heattreatable alloy (AA6111) and a non-heat-treatable alloy (AA5754), which demonstrate how the technique can be used to characterize changes in the microstructure. Results on AA6111 show that the dependence of the measurement on solute atoms and fine scale precipitates makes deconvolution of the resistivity signal non-trivial and therefore, utilization of supplementary technique(s) in conjunction with electrical resistivity measurements is essential. In the next example, room temperature electrical resistivity measurements as a function of cold work for AA5754 illustrate a larger resistivity contribution from dislocations in this alloy as compared to that reported for pure aluminum. The interaction of solutes and dislocations is cited as the possible source for the increased dislocation contribution.
Authors: S. Esmaeili, Warren J. Poole, David J. Lloyd
Authors: H. Azizi-Alizamini, Matthias Militzer, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: Recently, there has been a large interest in the development of low carbon steels with ultra fine grain structure using lean chemistries. Although these steels typically have superior strength, the lack of work hardening capability limits the uniform elongation and thus the formability of these kinds of steels. It has been reported by Tsuji and co-workers (2002) that straining of martensite as an initial structure can yield an ultra fine grain structure with good combination of strength and ductility. However, the detailed mechanism of the grain refinement has not yet been clarified. In the present work, the annealing behavior of a low carbon martensitic structure with and without deformation at room temperature has been systematically studied. It is proposed that the process of concurrent softening due to recovery and recrystallization and precipitation of carbides is different for the deformed and undeformed materials. Further, preliminary results have been found on the role of substitutional alloying elements such as Mo or Cr on the kinetics of the softening processes.
Authors: Warren J. Poole, J. David Embury
Authors: Damien Fabrègue, Alexis Deschamps, Michel Suéry, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: In order to improve the understanding of hot tearing during laser welding of aluminium alloys, the rheology of the alloys in the mushy state must be characterized. The present work investigates the mechanical behaviour of the aerospace alloy AA6056 using a specially designed isothermal tensile test in the mushy state. Using a Gleeble thermo-mechanical machine, two different tests have been performed: i) tests during partial remelting and ii) tests after partial solidification at a high cooling rate. These tests have been carried out not only on the 6056 alloy but also on a mix between 6056 and 4047 Al-Si alloy which corresponds to the composition of the nugget of a laser using a filler wire. The increase of the solid fraction results in an increase of the maximum stress and a change on the fracture surface from a smooth dendritic to a more ductile one. Moreover, the alloys exhibit a typical visco plastic behaviour with an increase of the maximal stress with the strain rate. When the test is performed at a particular solid fraction of 0.97, the fracture is more erratic and the ductility is low. The results show the existence of a ductile/brittle/ductile transition with the fraction of solid. The fracture stress is shown to be higher when testing after partial remelting as compared to partial solidification for the same solid fraction. This is due to the difference in microstructure of the mushy zone and more particularly in the connectivity of the solid skeleton. An adapted creep law is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of alloys during the partial remelting test using the fraction of grain boundary wetted by the liquid given by Wray. This law is shown to be irrelevant to the partial solidification tests, as a result of the modified geometry of the liquid phase. From these tests, we have determined a new law relating the solid fraction to the fraction of grain boundaries wetted by the liquid. This law is a useful tool to predict the mechanical behaviour when mechanical loading occurs during solidification.
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