Papers by Author: Y. Dohi

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Authors: Kazuhide Miyazaki, Takafumi Yoshikawa, Jin Iida, Y. Ueda, M. Koizumi, N. Satoh, Hideki Shigematsu, Y. Dohi, Hajime Ohgushi, Yoshinori Takakura
Abstract: Introduction: Marrow mesenchymal cells contain stem cells and can regenerate tissues. We previously reported the clinical application of autologous cultured bone to regeneration therapy. However, in cases with low numbers of active cells, culture is often unsatisfactory. If frozen marrow cells retain their osteogenic potential, we could clinically use them in regeneration therapy as alternatives to high active cells obtained from youngsters. Here, we examined osteogenic potential of frozen human mesenchymal stem cells in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) using biochemical and histological analyses. Method: Marrow fluid was aspirated from the human iliac bone of a 46-year-old man with lumbar canal stenosis during surgery. Two weeks after primary culture in standard medium, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were trypsinized for the preparation of a cell suspension, and cells were concentrated to 106 cells/ml by centrifugation. Cells were kept at – 80 °C until use. To impregnate porous hydroxyapatite (HA) with rhBMP, 1 3g rhBMP/20 3l 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid was applied on HA, and then desiccated under vacuum. In the present study, we used 4 subgroups: BMSC/rhBMP/HA, BMSC/HA, rhBMP/HA, and HA only. HA constructs from the 4 subgroups were implanted at subcutaneous sites on the back of 5-week-old nude mice (BALB/cA Jcl-nu). Eight weeks after implantation, implanted HA constructs were harvested, and biochemical and histological analyses were performed. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and human osteocalcin (hOs) levels were measured. Results and Discussion: ALP activity and hOs in the BMSC/BMP/HA subgroup were 2 or 3 times that in the BMSC/HA subgroup. Histological analysis showed that significant bone formation was observed in these two subgroups, and supported biochemical data. However, in the BMP/HA and HA only subgroups, significant bone formation could not be detected histologically nor biochemically. These results indicated that a combination of rhBMP and BMSCs, and only with a minimal amount of 1 3g rhBMP, allowed successful generation of human bone. In the human body, rhBMP in the order of milligrams is necessary for bone formation. However, by combining BMSCs, HA and rhBMP, only a small amount of rhBMP was needed to dramatically enhance osteogenic potential. As we reported here, cryopreserved BMSCs also showed high osteoblastic activity. In conclusion, this study provided histological and biochemical evidence that combination of cryopreserved BMSCs, BMP, and porous HA could enhance osteogenic potential.
Authors: Hajime Ohgushi, Y. Dohi, Toshiaki Noshi, M. Ikeuchi, Takafumi Yoshikawa, M. Okumura, Hideo Nakajima, Yoshinori Takakura
Authors: H. Shimaoka, Y. Dohi, K. Narikawa, Hajime Ohgushi, M. Ikeuchi, M. Okamoto, T. Kirita, K. Yonemasu
Abstract: Various recombinant growth factors have been used for promoting osteoblastic differentiation cascade. To compare the growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in the in vivo osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the bone formation was assessed by rat subcutaneous implantation of 5 kinds of hydroxyapatite (HA) implants; namely GDF/HA composites, BMP/HA composites, MSCs/HA composites and the MSCs/HA composites supplemented with recombinant mouse GDF-5 (GDF/MSCs/HA) or recombinant human BMP-2 (BMP/MSCs/HA). Neither the GDF/HA nor the BMP/HA composites exhibited any bone formation at any time after implantation. At both 2 and 4 weeks after implantation, obvious de novo bone formation together with active osteoblasts was seen histologically in many pores of the GDF/MSCs/HA and BMP/MSCs/HA composites. The GDF/MSCs/HA and BMP/MSCs/HA composites also showed high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin expression determined at both the protein and gene levels. Compared with GDF/MSCs/HA, the BMP/MSCs/HA composites exhibited excellent osteogenesis with relatively early osteoblastic phenotype expression. These findings indicate that the two growth factors synergistically enhance de novo bone formation capability of MSCs/HA composites and the importance of ceramic surface to retain and to deliver the molecules of growth factors for the cell differentiation and maturation.
Authors: M. Ikeuchi, Y. Dohi, Hajime Ohgushi, Toshiaki Noshi, Katsuhiro Horiuchi, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Masahito Sugimura, Atsuo Ito
Authors: Hideki Shigematsu, Takafumi Yoshikawa, Kazuhide Miyazaki, N. Satoh, M. Koizumi, Y. Ueda, Y. Dohi, Hajime Ohgushi, Yoshinori Takakura
Abstract: Introduction: Osteogenesis occurs in porous hydroxyapatite (HA) when HA blocks combined with marrow mesenchymal cells are grafted in vivo. In vitro bone formation occurs in HA pores when HA combined with marrow cells is cultured in osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone. Cultured bone/HA constructs possess higher osteogenic ability when they are grafted in vivo. Marrow mesenchymal cells (MSCs) contain many stem cells which can generate many tissue types. In the present study, we investigated osteogenic potential of cultured bone/HA combined with MSCs. Materials and Methods: Marrow cells were obtained from the femoral bone shaft of male Fischer 344 rats (7 weeks old), and were cultured in T-75 flasks. Primary cultured cells were trypsinized and combined with porous HA (5x5x5 mm, Interpore 500). The composites were subcultured in osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone. One tenth of primary cells were transferred into new T-75 flasks containing standard medium. After 2 weeks, MSCs were trypsinized, combined with cultured-bone/HA constructs, and prepared for implantation. MSC/cultured-bone/HA constructs, cultured bone/HA constructs, and HA alone were subcutaneously implanted into syngeneic rats. These implants were harvested at 2 or 4 weeks post-implantation, and prepared for histological and biochemical analyses. Results: Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content of MSC /cultured bone/HA constructs were much higher than those of cultured bone/HA constructs at 2 and 4 weeks post-implantation. Histological examination supported these findings. Discussion and Conclusion: MSCs show high ability of cell proliferation. In addition, MSCs can generate new blood vessels which would support regeneration of bone tissue. Here, we suggested that MSCs could promote osteogenesis. We also showed that excellent engineered bone tissue could be fabricated by combining MSCs and cultured bone derived from dexamethasone-treated MSC culture.
Authors: Yasuaki Tohma, Hajime Ohgushi, Y. Dohi, H. Shimaoka, Yasushi Ikeda, Y. Mizuta, Yoshinori Takakura
Authors: Hajime Ohgushi, Toshiaki Noshi, M. Ikeuchi, Takafumi Yoshikawa, Y. Dohi, Tetsuya Tateishi
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