Papers by Author: Ya Xu

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Authors: Ya Xu, Dong Hyun Chun, Jun Hyuk Jang, Masahiko Demura, Dang Moon Wee, Toshiyuki Hirano
Abstract: The catalytic activity of oxidation-reduction pre-treated Ni3Al powder for methane steam reforming was examined. The oxidation-reduction pre-treatment consisted of two steps: oxidation in air at various temperatures from 973 to 1373 K, and then followed by reduction in H2 at 873 K. It was found that the oxidation-reduction treatments significantly reduced the onset temperature of activity, i.e., improved the activity of Ni3Al powder at low temperatures. The characterization of Ni3Al surface showed that an outer surface layer of fine NiO particles were formed on the surface of Ni3Al after oxidation. These NiO particles were reduced to metallic Ni by the subsequent reduction treatment, resulting in the high activity for methane steam reforming. These results indicate that the Ni3Al can form highly active surface structure with oxidation-reduction treatment, having excellent heat resistance.
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Authors: Toshiyuki Hirano, Ya Xu, Masahiko Demura
Abstract: This paper presents the characteristic features of the catalytic properties of the cold-rolled Ni3Al foils for methanol decomposition which were developed in our group. Methanol was effectively decomposed into H2 and CO over the foils above 713 K. The production rates of H2 and CO increased with an increase of time during the initial period of reaction, indicating that the Ni3Al foils were spontaneously activated under the reaction conditions. Surface analyses revealed that fine Ni particles dispersed on carbon nanofibers formed on the foils during the reaction. The high catalytic performance of the foils can be attributed to the spontaneous formation of this nanostructure during the reaction.
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Authors: Ya Xu, Satoshi Kameoka, Kyosuke Kishida, Masahiko Demura, An Pong Tsai, Toshiyuki Hirano
Abstract: Ni3Al has attractive high temperature properties, such as high strength and good oxidation/corrosion resistance, and is possible to be used for high temperature chemical processing and manufacture. Until now, the catalytic properties of Ni3Al were rarely investigated since the leaching of aluminum from Ni3Al is difficult to obtain a porous Raney-Ni compared to NiAl3 and Ni2Al3. In the present work, the catalytic properties of Ni3Al were examined for hydrogen production reactions from methanol. It was found that alkali-leached Ni3Al showed high activity for methanol decomposition (CH3OH→ 2H2+CO). Furthermore, Ni3Al catalysts suppress the formation of methane, i.e. they show higher selectivity for the methanol decomposition reaction than Ni catalyst. These results indicate a possibility for Ni3Al used as a catalyst for hydrogen production reaction.
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Authors: Ya Xu, Masahiko Demura, Toshiyuki Hirano, Yasuyuki Kaneno, Takayuki Takasugi
Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the catalytic properties of intermetallic Ni3Fe foil. We fabricated Ni3Fe foil of 30 µm in thickness by a metallurgical process, and examined the catalytic activity of the Ni3Fe foil for methanol decomposition from 513 to 973 K. The Ni3Fe foil showed activity for methanol decomposition above 623 K. The activity increased with the increase of reaction temperature. Surface analysis revealed that a surface structure of fine Ni-Fe particles dispersed on carbon nanofibers was formed on the foil during the reaction. The activity is attributed to the formation of this fine structure.
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Authors: Junya Sakurai, Ya Xu, Masahiko Demura, Toshiyuki Hirano, Ryuji Tamura
Abstract: The catalytic properties of the cold-rolled foils of intermetallic compound TiNi were studied for hydrogen production from methanol in a temperature range of 513-793 K. The catalytic activity for methanol decomposition increased with a reaction temperature, especially above 673 K. The SEM and EDS analyses revealed the formation of numerous Ni-enriched particles dispersed in the layer of carbon fibers during the reaction. The catalytic activity of TiNi foils is attributed to those Ni-enriched particles.
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Authors: Ya Xu, Masahiko Demura, Toshiyuki Hirano
Abstract: The effect of acid and alkali leaching on catalytic activity of an atomized Ni3Al powder for methanol decomposition was investigated. It was found that a two-step process, an acid leaching followed by an alkali leaching, was most effective for improving the activity. The optimal conditions of acid and alkali leaching were examined. The effect of the acid and alkali leaching was attributed to the formation of fine Ni species and a porous surface structure.
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Authors: Kyosuke Kishida, Masahiko Demura, Satoru Kobayashi, Ya Xu, Toshiyuki Hirano
Abstract: We have studied the texture and microstructure evolution during cold rolling of Ni3Al single crystals as a function of the initial crystal orientations and revealed that the cold rolling behavior of the single crystals are strongly dependent on the initial crystal orientations, especially on the initial rolling direction (RD). An optimum condition for thin foil fabrication is determined that the initial RD is close to <001>. According to the conditions we have successfully fabricated the wide and thin foils of binary Ni3Al by cold rolling the single crystalline ingots. The thinnest foils obtained so far are about 20µm in thickness and 50mm in width. This document reviews the current status of our research on the thin foils of intermetallic compound Ni3Al.
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Authors: Masahiko Demura, Ya Xu, Kyosuke Kishida, Toshiyuki Hirano
Abstract: Primary recrystallization textures were examined in the 84% and 95% cold-rolled boron-free Ni3Al single crystals with a Goss texture using the electron backscatter diffraction method. It was found that the main components of the textures in the specimens heat-treated at 873K/0.5h had a 40° rotation relationship about <111> to the original, Goss texture. All the eight variants of 40°<111> rotated grains existed. However, the number density is not even but dependent on whether the rotation axis is identical to the normal of slip planes activated during the prior cold rolling. The ratio of the number density among the variants was same in both the 84% and 95% cold-rolled foils. Based on these results, the formation of these 40°<111> rotated grains was explained assuming the modified multiple twinning mechanism where the annealing twinning occurred at the activated slip planes, followed by the subsequent twinning.
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Authors: Masahiko Demura, Ya Xu, Toshiyuki Hirano
Abstract: Texture evolution during recrystallization and grain growth was examined for a Ni3Al/Ni two-phase single crystal (binary Ni-18 at.% Al) 83% cold-rolled, then compared with that for a Ni3Al single-phase single crystal (Ni-24 at.% Al). The cold-rolled single crystal had a sharp {110}<001> (Goss) texture. When it was recrystallized at 873K, the texture changed into a complicated one consisting of several components. Most of them had a special rotation relationship to the original Goss texture, i.e. 40˚ about <111>, which special relationship was similarly observed in the single-phase case. The 40˚<111> texture became shaper with no quantitative change as the grain growth proceeded. This high stability of the recrystallized texture contrasted with the single-phase case in which the authors previously found that the texture returned to the original Goss texture. The difference was discussed based on the orientation analysis by an electron backscattered diffraction method.
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Authors: Masahiko Demura, Dierk Raabe, Franz Roters, Philip Eisenlohr, Ya Xu, Toshiyuki Hirano, Kyosuke Kishida
Abstract: The activated slip systems were analyzed in the cold rolling of a Ni3Al single crystal with an initial orientation of ~[-112](512), which showed an irregular rolling deformation, i.e. widening, bending, and shear deformation. A phenomenological crystal plasticity model was applied using a spectral method. The boundary condition was optimized to reproduce the actual rolling deformation, as follows. That is, the orthogonal components of the deformation gradient were given from the measured widening and reduction, and the shear components were iteratively optimized as to that the final orientation was as close to the experimental one as possible. The calculated result showed that three slip systems, a3, b1, and d1 in the Bishop-Hill notation, were mainly activated in the irregular rolling deformation, which result was consistent to the previous observation of the slip traces [Kishida et al., Philos. Mag. 83 (2003) 3029]. The three activated systems were identical to those activated in the plane-strain condition. However, the quantitative comparison revealed that the activity of b1 was significantly reduced in the irregular rolling deformation, while the activity of d1 was enhanced instead. The less activity of b1 and the enhancement of d1 can be understood assuming a strong interaction between a3 and b1. The reaction of this pair has been reported to form the superlattice intrinsic stacking fault (SISF) in Ni3Al [Chiba and Hanada, Philos. Mag. A. 69 (1994) 751]. It is likely that the formation of the SISF, which are considered immobile in Ni3Al, restrained the activation of b1, leading to the irregular rolling deformation.
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