Papers by Author: A.K.M. Nurul Amin

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Authors: A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Siti Nurshahida Mohd Nasir, Noor Syairah Khalid, Muammer Din Arif
Abstract: Review of past research indicated that ductile mode machining of silicon can produce surface roughness values as low as 0.22 µm, which is about half of 0.40 µm, the usual standard roughness value to avoid fine grinding and rough polishing operations. The current research investigated and compared the surface roughness and integrity attained in high speed end milling of silicon (using diamond coated tools) under ductile mode machining conditions. Two different types of end milling machines were utilized, CNC and conventional milling machines. Additionally, the effect of compressed air on the resultant surface roughness was investigated. The air blowing fixture, designed for mounting the compressed air hose, consisted of fixed and movable jaws, air blower clamp, fasteners, and the air gun. Air blowing was used to prevent silicon chips from settling on the machined surface, since it was observed to be an acute problem in high speed ductile mode machining of silicon. The three machining parameters: spindle speed, depth of cut, and feed rate were varied within the ranges 60,000 to 80,000 rpm, 10 to 20 µm, and 5 to 15 mm/min respectively. The resultant machined surfaces were analysed using Wyko NT 1100 and SurfTest SV-500 profilometers in order to measure the attaine surface roughnesses and surface profile. The machined surfaces had almost no deposition and was of excellent finish.
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Authors: Ummu Atiqah Khairiyah B. Mohammad, A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Mohd Redzuan Bin Abdul Rappat, Muammer D. Arif
Abstract: This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of vibration analysis conducted on Engine Lathe Harrison M390 using variable cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut at constant tool overhang of 120mm as the machining parameters ascertain the effectiveness of TiN coated carbide insert in turning of hardened steel AISI 304. The experiments were designed based on the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) approach using DESIGN EXPERT (DOE) software to enhance statistical model using the capabilities of RSM to compare the effectiveness of application of a combination of a bottom and a side magnet with respect to the tool holder in terms of reduction of chatter amplitude. The experiments were performed under application of magnetic field from two permanent magnets with magnetic strength of 1200 Gauss each with one located at the bottom and the other at the side of the cutting tool with distance 1cm from the tool. The dimension of the bottom magnet was 25 x 25 x 50mm and that of the side magnet was 87 x 50 x 17mm. The vibration amplitude data for the two conditions were compared to identify the influence of magnet on chatter reduction. The results reveal that a maximum of 87% and an average of 50% reduction of chatter acceleration amplitude were achieved with the said arrangement of the magnets. Furthermore, empirical mathematical model of maximum chatter amplitude was developed for machining with magnet application to predict the cutting parameters with the lowest value of chatter amplitude and maximum material removal rate.
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Authors: A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Muammer Din Arif, Noor Hawa B. Mohamad Rasdi, Khairus Syakirah B. Mahmud, Abdul Hakam B. Ibrahim, Mohd Firdaus B. Zawani, Amir Faris B. Abdul Malik
Abstract: Thermal or heat assisted machining is used to machine hard and difficult-to-machine materials such as Inconel and Titanium alloys. The main concept is that localized surface heating of the work-piece reduces the yield strength of the material significantly, making it amenable to plastic deformation and machining. Thus, heat assisted machining has been used for over a century. However, the heating technique and temperature are very much dependent on the type of working material. Therefore, a multitude of heating techniques has been applied over the years including Laser Assisted Machining (LAM) and Plasma Enhanced Machining (PEM) in the industry. But such processes are very expensive and have not been found in wide scale applications. The authors of the current research have therefore looked into the application of a simple Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding setup to perform heat assisted turning of AISI 304 Stainless Steel. Such welding equipment is relatively cheap and available. Also, stainless steel is perennially used in the industry for high strength applications. Hence, it is very important to determine with optimal cutting temperature when applying a TIG setup for heat assisted machining of stainless steel. This paper describes three separate techniques for determining the optimum temperature. All three processes applied the same experimental setup but used different variables for evaluating the best temperature. The first process used vibration amplitude reduction with increment in temperature to identify the desired temperature. The second process used chip shrinkage coefficient to locate the same temperature. And finally, the third process investigated tool wear as a criterion for determining the optimum temperature. In all three cases the three primary cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, were varied in the same pattern. The results obtained from all three approaches showed that 450oC was undoubtedly the best temperature for heat assisted machining of stainless steel.
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Authors: A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Ummu Atiqah Khairiyah Mohamad, Muammer Din Arif
Abstract: Machine tool chatter is a type of intensive self-excited vibration of the individual components in a machine-tool-fixture-work system. Chatter affects the cutting process and may lead to negative effects concerning surface quality, cutting tool life, and machining precision. However, modern manufacturing industries and their end users demand fine surface finish, high dimensional accuracy as well as low operation costs which include the cost of tooling. Therefore, any effective damping technique, which reduces or eliminates chatter, will significantly improve tool life and will be a profitable technique to implement in the industry. This paper presents a novel chatter control method in turning of (AISI 304) stainless steel by using permanent magnets. The study compared tool wear under two different cutting conditions: normal turning and turning with magnetic damping. A specail fixture made of mild steel was designed and fabricated in order to attach a powerful neodymium permanent magnet (4500 Gauss) to the carraige of a Harrison M390 engine lathe. The arrangement ensured that the magnet was placed exactly below the tool shank. The main idea was that the magnet will provide effective damping by attracting the steel tool shank and restricting its vertical vibratory motion during cutting operations. A Kistler 50g accelerometer, placed at the bottom front end of the tool shank was used to sense vibration. The data was then collected using a Dewetron DAQ module and analyzed using Dewesoft (version 7) software in a powerful Dell workstation. Response surface methodology (RSM) in Design Expert software (version 6) was used to design the sequence of experiments needed based on three primary cutting parameters: cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut. The tool overhang was kept constant at 120 mm in order to facilitate the attachment of the magnet fixture. Analysis of the recorded vibration signals in the frequency domain indicated that significant reduction in the vibration amplitude, as much as 86%, was obtained with magnetic damping. Next tool wear was analysed and measured using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that tool wear is reduced considerably by a maximum of 87.8% with the magnetic damping method. Therefore, this new magnetic damping method can be very cost effective, in terms of vibration reduction and tool life extension, if applied to industrial turning operations of metals.
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Authors: A.K.M. Nurul Amin, Mahmoud M.A. Nassar, Muammer Din Arif
Abstract: Soda lime glass is a very important material in diverse manufacturing industries, including automotive, electronics, and aerospace. In these applications, the glass surface needs to be defect free and without impurities. However, the machining of glass is difficult due to its inherent brittleness which leads to brittle fracture and easy crack propagation. This research investigates the high speed micro-end milling of soda lime glass in order to attain ductile regime machining. It has been found by other researchers that ductile mode machining can avoid brittle fracture and sub-surface cracks. Also, in this study, a special air delivery nozzle is used to blow away the resultant chips and keep the machined surface clean. To accomplish this, Design Expert software and a commercial NC end mill were used to design and perform the machining runs, respectively. The surface roughness of the resultant surfaces was later analyzed with a surface profilometer. Microphotographs of the machined surfaces were also taken in order to see how effective the air blowing method is. The results of surface roughness measurements were then used to develop a quadratic empirical model for surface finish prediction. Finally, desirability function and genetic algorithms were used to predict the best combination of cutting parameters needed to obtain the lowest surface roughness. The predictions were later tested by experiments. The results demonstrate that this type of machining is viable and the roughness obtained is very low at 0.049 μm.
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