Papers by Author: A. Lodder

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Authors: T. Yamamoto, A. Lodder, Mamoru Senna, Kenji Hamada, K. Machi
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Authors: A. Lodder
Abstract: The driving force on an ion in a metal due to an applied electric field, called the electromigration force, is built up out of two contributions, a wind force and a direct force. The wind force is due to the scattering of the current carrying electrons off the ion. The direct force works on the effective charge of the ion. In the present work we concentrate on the direct force on a migrating proton embedded in an electron gas. For this force a sign change is obtained as soon as a bound state is formed. In recent calculations hardly a sign change was seen, although a bound state was found in a self-consistent-potential for lower electron densities. Here we show that a supplementary term shows up, as soon as one accounts for the bound state explicitly. By this the problem has been solved regarding a possible lack of completeness of the published formalism. The results presented are based on square-well model potentials. By using different depths it is possible to show results for potentials without a bound state and accommodating one bound state.
69
Authors: A. Lodder
695
Authors: J. van Ek, A. Lodder
Abstract: Orthogonal experiment design and variance analysis were adopted to investigate the hydrogen desorption properties of NaAlH4 and LiAlH4, which consisted of three stages, ball-milled under argon. Optimum milling condition was very important for the performance of NaAlH4 and LiAlH4, which was obtained from the orthogonal experiments. The orthogonal experiment design considered three experimental factors, i.e. weight ratio of ball to power, weight ratio of ɸ8 ball to ɸ4 ball and milling time, which varied on three different levels, respectively. According to the range analysis and variance analysis from the orthogonal experiments, the weight ratio of ball to powder and ɸ8 ball to ɸ4 ball had more impacts on the hydrogen desorption time of NaAlH4,while the most sensitive influencing factor of LiAlH4 was milling time. NaAlH4 had the optimum performance when the weight ratio of ball to power was 30:1, the weight ratio of ɸ8 ball to ɸ4 ball was 0.5:1 and milling time was 0.5h. LiAlH4 had the optimum performance when the weight ratio of ball to power was 40:1, the weight ratio of ɸ8 ball to ɸ4 ball was 0.5:1 and milling time was 2h.
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