Papers by Author: Akio Hirose

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Authors: E. Ide, S. Angata, Akio Hirose, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: We propose a novel bonding process using Ag metallo-organic nanoparticles, of which the average particle size is around 11 nm. In this paper, Al, Ti, Ni, Cu, Ag and Au disc joints were made using the Ag metallo-organic nanoparticles in order to investigate the bondability of the various metals. These joints are evaluated based on measurement of the shear strength, and the observation of the fracture surfaces and the cross-sectional microstructures. The shear strength of the various metal joints increased in the following order: Al, Ti, Ni, Cu, Ag and Au. This corresponds to the order of the standard-free energy value of the oxide formation for each metal. In particular, while the strengths of the Cu, Ag and Au joints, in which the oxides can be reduced by carbon, were the same level, those of the Al and Ti joints, of which the oxides were more stable than carbon oxides, were extremely low. This result suggests that the carbon atoms or organic elements generated by the decomposition of the organic shell of the Ag metallo-organic nanoparticles may play a role in deoxidizing the oxide film on the metal surface. This can promote chemical bonding between the Ag nanoparticles and metals at low temperatures.
383
Authors: Tomo Ogura, Akio Hirose, Tatsuo Sato
Abstract: The effect of PFZ and grain boundary precipitates formed in aging processes on the macroscopic mechanical properties in Al-Zn-Mg(-Ag) alloys were evaluated using TEM, SEM, tensile test and nanoindentation. Decreases in width of PFZ and smaller size of grain boundary precipitates aging at lower temperatures and/or the addition of Ag processes improved the tensile properties, and the presence of PFZ was found to be harmful to the fracture. Nanoindentation hardness results clarified that the hardness within PFZ is smaller than that in grain interiors, indicating that, in the alloy with large width of PFZ, preferential deformation occurs within PFZ in the initial stage of deformation, and this causes lower elongation regardless of the same level of proof stress and the same sizes of grain boundary precipitates. From the quantitative correlation between precipitate microstructures in the vicinity of grain boundaries, mechanical properties and fracture morphologies, the deformation process of the alloys is considered to divided by three types; i.e. in case of the alloys with the small width of PFZ and the small size of grain boundary precipitates, in case of the alloys with the large width of PFZ and the small size of grain boundary precipitates and in case of the alloys with the large width of PFZ and the large size of grain boundary precipitates.
297
Authors: Tomokazu Sano, Kengo Takahashi, Akio Hirose, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: Dependence of the femtosecond laser ablation depth on the laser pulse energy was investigated for Zr55Al10Ni5Cu30 bulk metallic glass. Investigation of the femtosecond laser ablation of bulk metallic glasses has not been reported. Femtosecond laser pulses (wavelength of 800 nm, pulse width of 100 fs, pulse energies of 2 – 900 μJ) were focused and irradiated on the polished surface of metals in air. The ablation depth of the metallic glass is deeper than that of its crystallized metal at a pulse energy in the strong ablation region. We suggest that the energy loss at grain boundaries of hot electrons which is accelerated by the laser electric field influence the ablation depth in the strong ablation region.
1951
Authors: Tomokazu Sano, Hiroaki Mori, Osamu Sakata, Etsuji Ohmura, Isamu Miyamoto, Akio Hirose, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: Quenching of the nanocrystalline high-pressure e phase of iron, which has not been observed under a conventional shock compression, was attained using a femtosecond laser. A small quantity of the g phase of iron also existed. We found that the e phase was induced by the shock itself but not the g phase. The g phase was suggested to be induced as an intermediate structure between the a-e transition. The femtosecond laser driven shock may have the potential to quench high-pressure phases which has not been attained using conventional methods.
3475
Authors: Masashi Tsujino, Tomokazu Sano, Norimasa Ozaki, Osamu Sakata, Masayuki Okoshi, Narumi Inoue, Ryosuke Kodama, Akio Hirose
Abstract: The high pressure simple hexagonal structure of silicon, which has not been synthesized, is quenched using femtosecond laser-driven shock wave. Any high-pressure phases of silicon do not remain after the pressure release in the case of the hydrostatic and conventional shock compression methods. We found the existence of the simple hexagonal structure after the intense femtosecond laser irradiation to silicon by analyzing the crystalline structures using a synchrotron grazing-incidence XRD method. Femtosecond laser-driven shock wave is a useful tool for the synthesis of non-equilibrium high-pressure phases.
1291
Authors: Tomokazu Sano, Kengo Takahashi, Akio Hirose, Osamu Sakata, Masayuki Okoshi, Narumi Inoue, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: We synthesized polymorphic diamond directly from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) using femtosecond laser driven shock wave without catalyst. A femtosecond laser pulse (wavelength: 800 nm, pulse width: 120 fs, intensity: 2×1015 W/cm2) was irradiated onto the HOPG surface in air. Crystalline structures of HOPG after the laser irradiation were analyzed using the synchrotron X-ray at the BL13XU in the SPring-8. We found that the hexagonal diamond exists in the HOPG which was irradiated by the femtosecond laser normal to the basal plane.
2349
Authors: Tomokazu Sano, Osamu Sakata, Etsuji Ohmura, Isamu Miyamoto, Akio Hirose, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: The synthesis of the high-pressure ε phase of iron, which has not been observed under a conventional shock compression, was attained using a femtosecond laser. The lower pressure and temperature α phase (bcc) transforms to the γ phase (fcc) at higher temperatures and to the ε phase (hcp) at higher pressures. A shock induced α to ε phase transition in iron is one of the most famous transitions under high pressure. The induced high-pressure ε phase by a conventional shock loading returns to the α phase and it is not quenched after the shock release because this transition is considered to be diffusionless. Crystalline structures in a recovered iron sample after the femtosecond laser (800 nm, 120 fs, 1014 W/cm2) irradiation were determined using the electron diffraction and the synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods. These results show the existence of the ε phase and the fcc structure in the recovered iron. The femtosecond laser-driven shock wave may have the potential to synthesis high-pressure phases of other materials that has not been done using the conventional shock wave.
349
Authors: Akio Hirose, Hirotaka Imaeda, Miki Kondo, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: Dissimilar joining of Al alloys and steel was carried out using diffusion bonding process. The effects of Si and Mg contents of Al alloys and bonding parameters on the interfacial reaction were fundamentally investigated. While the reaction layers consisting of Fe-Al type intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interfacial region, in the joint with Al alloys including 1mass% Si or more a ternary Fe-Al-Si IMC layer formed at the Al alloy side. The growth of the reaction layers followed the parabolic growth low. A maximum joint strength was obtained at an average reaction layer thickness ranging from 0.5 to 1μm. The thicker reaction layer caused the fracture of the joints at a lower stress because of brittleness of the IMCs, and the thinner reaction layer including un-bonded interface also resulted in a low joint strength. As a result a thin and uniform reaction layer including less un-bonded interface can realize a high joint strength. Since the Fe-Al-Si IMC layer uniformly formed more rapidly than the binary Fe-Al IMCs in the joint with Al alloys including 1mass% Si or more, a higher joint strength was obtained at a thinner average reaction layer. As a result, it was found that the chemical compositions of 6000 series Al alloy controlled to be Mg (0.6 to 1.0mass%) and Si (more than 1.0mass%) were appropriate to obtain the better bonding characteristics.
3888
Authors: Akio Hirose, Tomoyuki Hiramori, Mototaka Ito, Yoshiharu Tanii, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: Sn-3.5Ag (Sn-Ag) and Sn-3.5Ag-0.75Cu (Sn-Ag-Cu) solder balls were reflowed on electroless Ni-P/Au plated Cu pad with varying thickness of Au layer (0 to 500nm). In the Sn-Ag solder joint, a P-rich layer including voids, which resulted from Ni diffusion from the Ni-P plating to form Ni3Sn4 interfacial reaction layer, formed at the interface regardless of Au plating thickness. This caused the degradation of the joint strength. On the contrary, the Sn-Ag-Cu solder joint had no continuous P-rich layer formed and showed a higher joint strength than the Sn-Ag solder joint in the case of Au plating of 50nm or less. Cu alloying to the solder promote the formation of (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 instead to Ni3Sn4 as the interfacial reaction layer. The (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 reaction layer can suppress the diffusion of Ni from the N-P plating and thereby inhibit the formation of the P-rich layer. However, in the case of thick Au plating of 250nm or more, a thin P-rich layer formed at the interface even in the Sn-Ag-Cu solder joint and the joint strength was degraded. Au dissolving into the solder from the Au plating during the reflow process may encourage the diffusion of Ni from the Ni-P plating into the solder. As a result, the Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints with 50nm Au coating provided the best joint strength, although its joint strength considerably degraded after the aging treatment at 423K.
355
Authors: Akio Hirose, Fumiaki Matsui, Hirotaka Imaeda, Kojiro F. Kobayashi
Abstract: In the present study, we fundamentaly analyzed the interfacial reaction and evaluated the joint strength in dissimilar diffusion bonding of Al alloys to steels. The growth of the reaction layer consisting of FeAl3 and Fe2Al5 intermetallic compounds followed the parabolic growth low. The joints with 5000 series Al alloys had a higher growth rate of the reaction layer than the joints with A6061 Al alloy. The joints of A6061 Al alloy to HT980steel had the lowest growth rate of the reaction layer. The joint strength depended on the thickness of the reaction layer. The A6061 Al alloy/steel joints had the maximum joint strength at around 1µm of average reaction layer thickness.
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