Papers by Author: Anthony Gravouil

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Authors: Jean Yves Buffière, Emilie Ferrié, Wolfgang Ludwig, Anthony Gravouil
Abstract: This paper reports recent results on the characterisation and modelling of the three dimensional (3D) propagation of small fatigue cracks using high resolution synchrotron X ray micro-tomography. Three dimensional images of the growth of small fatigue cracks initiated in two Al alloys on natural or artificial defects are shown. Because of the small size of the investigated samples (millimetric size), fatigue cracks grown in conventional Al alloys with a grain size around 100 micrometers can be considered as microstructurally short cracks. A strong interaction of these cracks with the grain boundaries in the bulk of the material is shown, resulting in a tortuous crack path. In ultra fine grain alloys, the crack shapes tend to be more regular and the observed cracks tend to grow like ”microstructurally long cracks” despite having a small physical size. Finite Element meshes of the cracks can be generated from the reconstructed tomographic 3D images. Local values of the stress intensity factor K along the experimental crack fronts are computed using the Extended Finite Element method and correlated with the crack growth rate.
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Authors: Fabien Cazes, Anita Simatos, Michel Coret, Alain Combescure, Anthony Gravouil
Abstract: This paper deals with the transition from a localized damage state to crack formation. Several attempts have already been made in this field. Our approach is in the continuity of studies where thermodynamic considerations lead to the definition of an equivalent crack concept. The main idea consists in replacing a damaged localized zone by a crack in order to recover the same amount of dissipated energy. On the one hand, a nonlocal model is used to modelize accurately localized damage. On the other hand, an elastic model which authorizes the formation of a crack described by a cohesive zone model is used. This cohesive zone model is defined thermodynamically in order to be in concordance with the damage model. The method allows obtaining the cohesive zone model traction curve from the knowledge of the nonlocal damage model solution. The numerical implementation is done using a Lagrangian multiplier that ensures the energetic equivalence between both models.
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Authors: Emilie Ferrié, Jean Yves Buffière, Wolfgang Ludwig, Anthony Gravouil
Abstract: In this paper we will present how it is possible to couple a 3D experimental technique with a 3D numerical method in order to calculate the stress intensity factors along the crack front taking into account the real shape of the crack. This approach is used to characterize microstructurally short fatigue cracks that exhibit a rather complicated 3D shape. The values of the stress intensity factors are calculated along the crack front at different stages of crack propagation and it can be seen that the crack shape irregularities introduce rather important fluctuations of the values of KI, KII and KIII along the crack front. The values of KI obtained taking into account the real shape of the crack are significantly different from the ones calculated using an approach based on a shape assumption
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