Papers by Author: Arnaldo M.G. Pinto

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Authors: Raul D.S.G. Campilho, Arnaldo M.G. Pinto, Mariana D. Banea, Filipe J.P. Chaves, Lucas F.M. da Silva
Abstract: Adhesive-bonding for the unions in multi-component structures is gaining momentum over welding, riveting and fastening. It is vital for the design of bonded structures the availability of accurate damage models, to minimize design costs and time to market. Cohesive Zone Models (CZM’s) have been used for fracture prediction in structures. The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a recent improvement of the Finite Element Method (FEM) that relies on traction-separation laws similar to those of CZM’s but it allows the growth of discontinuities within bulk solids along an arbitrary path, by enriching degrees of freedom. This work proposes and validates a damage law to model crack propagation in a thin layer of a structural epoxy adhesive using the XFEM. The fracture toughness in pure mode I (GIc) and tensile cohesive strength (sn0) were defined by Double-Cantilever Beam (DCB) and bulk tensile tests, respectively, which permitted to build the damage law. The XFEM simulations of the DCB tests accurately matched the experimental load-displacement (P-d) curves, which validated the analysis procedure.
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Authors: Raul D.S.G. Campilho, Filipe J.P. Chaves, Arnaldo M.G. Pinto, Mariana D. Banea, Lucas F.M. da Silva
Abstract: Adhesive joints are largely employed nowadays as a fast and effective joining process. The respective techniques for strength prediction have also improved over the years. Cohesive Zone Models (CZM’s) coupled to Finite Element Method (FEM) analyses surpass the limitations of stress and fracture criteria and allow modelling damage. CZM’s require the energy release rates in tension (Gn) and shear (Gs) and respective fracture energies in tension (Gnc) and shear (Gsc). Additionally, the cohesive strengths (tn0 for tension and ts0 for shear) must also be defined. In this work, the influence of the CZM parameters of a triangular CZM used to model a thin adhesive layer is studied, to estimate their effect on the predictions. Some conclusions were drawn for the accuracy of the simulation results by variations of each one of these parameters.
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Authors: Arnaldo M.G. Pinto, Raul D.S.G. Campilho, Isabel R. Mendes, A.G. Magalhães, A.P.M. Baptista
Abstract: Adhesive bonding as a joining or repair method has a wide application in many industries. Repairs with bonded patches are often carried out to re-establish the stiffness at critical regions or spots of corrosion and/or fatigue cracks. Single and double-strap repairs (SS and DS, respectively) are a viable option for repairing. For the SS repairs, a patch is adhesively-bonded on one of the structure faces. SS repairs are easy to execute, but the load eccentricity leads to peel peak stresses at the overlap edges. DS repairs involve the use of two patches, one on each face of the structure. These are more efficient than SS repairs, due to the doubling of the bonding area and suppression of the transverse deflection of the adherends. Shear stresses also become more uniform as a result of smaller differential straining. The experimental and Finite Element (FE) study presented here for strength prediction and design optimization of bonded repairs includes SS and DS solutions with different values of overlap length (LO). The examined values of LO include 10, 20 and 30 mm. The failure strengths of the SS and DS repairs were compared with FE results by using the Abaqus® FE software. A Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) with a triangular shape in pure tensile and shear modes, including the mixed-mode possibility for crack growth, was used to simulate fracture of the adhesive layer. A good agreement was found between the experiments and the FE simulations on the failure modes, elastic stiffness and strength of the repairs, showing the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed FE technique in predicting strength of bonded repairs. Furthermore, some optimization principles were proposed to repair structures with adhesively-bonded patches that will allow repair designers to effectively design bonded repairs.
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Authors: Arnaldo M.G. Pinto, Raul D.S.G. Campilho, Isabel R. Mendes, A.G. Magalhães, A.P.M. Baptista
Abstract: Adhesively-bonded techniques offer an attractive option for repair of aluminium structures, and currently there are three widely used configurations, i.e., single-strap (SS), double-strap (DS) and scarf repairs. SS and DS repairs are straightforward to execute but stresses in the adhesive layer peak at the ends of the overlap. DS repairs additionally require both sides of the damaged structures to be reachable for repair, which is often not possible. In these repair configurations, some limitations emerge such as the weight, aerodynamic performance and aesthetics. The scarf repair is more complex to fabricate but stresses are more uniform along the adhesive bondline. Few studies of SS and DS repairs with embedded patches, such that these are completely flush with the adherends, are available in the literature. Furthermore, no data is available about the effects of geometrical and material parameters (e.g. the Young’s modulus of adhesive, E) on the mechanical behaviour optimization of embedded repairs. For this purpose, in this work standard SS and DD repairs, and also with embedded patches in the adherends, were tested under tension to allow the geometry optimization, by varying the overlap length (LO), thus allowing the maximization of the repairs strength. The influence of the patch embedding technique, showing notorious advantages such as aerodynamic or aesthetics, was compared in strength with standard strap repairs, for the viability analysis of its implementation. As a result of this work, some conclusions were drawn for the design optimization of bonded repairs on aluminium structures.
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