Papers by Author: Bilal Nsouli

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Authors: Maher Soueidan, Gabriel Ferro, Bilal Nsouli, Nada Habka, Veronique Soulière, Ghassan Younes, Khaled Zahraman, Jean Marie Bluet, Yves Monteil
Abstract: Vapor-Liquid-Solid was used for growing boron doped homoepitaxial SiC layers on 4HSiC( 0001) 8°off substrates. Si-based melts were fed by propane (5 sccm) in the temperature range 1450-1500°C. Two main approaches were studied to incorporate boron during growth : 1) adding elemental B in the initial melt, with two different compositions : Si90B10 and Si27Ge68B5; the growth was performed at 1500°C; 2) adding B2H6 (1 to 5 sccm) to the gas phase during growth with a melt composition of Si25Ge75; the growth was performed at 1450°C. In most cases, the growth time was limited by liquid loss due to wetting on the crucible walls. The longer growth duration (1h) was obtained when adding B2H6 to the gas phase. In the case of Si90B10 melt, the surface morphology exhibits large and parallel terraces whereas the step front is more undulated when adding Ge. Raman and photoluminescence characterizations performed on these layers confirmed the 4H polytype of the layers in addition to the presence of B which results in a strong B-N donor-acceptor band. Particle induced γ-ray emission was also used to detect B incorporation inside the grown layers.
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Authors: Maher Soueidan, Olivier Kim-Hak, Gabriel Ferro, Nada Habka, Bilal Nsouli
Abstract: The growth kinetics of 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial layers on α-SiC substrates by Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in Ge-Si melts was investigated. Various parameters were studied such as temperature, melt composition, propane flux and substrate nature (polytype, polarity and misorientation). It was found that the growth rate increases with increasing temperature, propane flux, Si content of the melt and misorientation of the substrate. The calculated activation energy (from 4.7 to 6.6 kcal/mole depending on the substrate type) is very small suggesting that the limiting process is the diffusion of the dissolved carbon inside the melt. The carbon solubility inside the melt mainly affects the carbon dissolution kinetics from the gas phase. The results also suggest that surface effects are important through the layer polarity and crystalline quality.
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Authors: Gabriel Ferro, Maher Soueidan, Olivier Kim-Hak, Jacques Dazord, François Cauwet, Bilal Nsouli
Abstract: We report on the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC layers by Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism on Si face 6H-SiC substrates, on-axis and 3.5° off. The Si-Ge melts, which Si content was varied from 10 to 50 at%, were fed by 3 sccm of propane. The growth temperature was varied from 1200 to 1600°C. It was found that 3C-SiC layers (either twinned or twinned free) form at low temperature while homoepitaxy is achieved at high temperature. The proposed growth mechanism involves the initial formation of 3C islands during the heating ramp (below 1200°C) and the dissolution of these islands when temperature increases. Geometrical aspects, such as the step density at the surface and the vertical component of the growth, are also considered to explain the difference observed between the on and off axis substrates.
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Authors: Maher Soueidan, Olivier Kim-Hak, Gabriel Ferro, Patrick Chaudouët, Didier Chaussende, Bilal Nsouli, Yves Monteil
Abstract: We report on the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC layers by Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism on various α-SiC substrates, namely on- and off-axis for both 4H and 6H-SiC(0001), Si and C faces. The Si-Ge melts, which Si content was varied from 25 to 50 at%, were fed by 3 sccm of propane. The growth temperature was varied from 1200 to 1600°C. It was found that singledomain 3C-SiC layers can be obtained on 6H-SiC off and on-axis and 4H-SiC on-axis, while the other types of substrate gave twinned 3C-SiC material. As a general rule, one has to increase temperature when decreasing the Si content of the melt in order to avoid DPB formation. It was also found that twinned 3C-SiC layers form at low temperature while homoepitaxy is achieved at high temperature.
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Authors: Sayed Abboudy, Maher Soueidan, Qassem Al Asaad, Laurent Auvray, Gabriel Ferro, Mohamad Roumie, Bilal Nsouli
Abstract: In this work, the capability of the proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE) technique to monitor a rapid, nondestructive and quantification of Boron in ultra-thin films of BxGa1-xAs deposited on GaAs substrate using MOCVD is discussed. In order to improve the sensitivity for B detection, a systematic study was undertaken using proton induced beam at three different energies (from 1.7, 2.4 and 3 MeV) with different tilting angles (0, 60° and 80°). Best conditions were found to be at 1.7 MeV and at 80° for proton energy and tilting angle within ten minutes of acquisition time.
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Authors: Ghassan Younes, Maher Soueidan, Gabriel Ferro, Khaled Zahraman, Bilal Nsouli
Abstract: In this work the capability of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to monitor a rapid, non-destructive and accurate quantification of Al on or inside SiC is discussed. Optimization of PIXE acquisition parameters was performed using as reference, a thin Al film (2.5 nm) thermally evaporated onto silicon carbide substrate. In order to improve the sensitivity for Al detection and quantitative determination, a systematic study was undertaken using proton ion beam at different energies (from 0.2 to 3 MeV) with a different tilting angle (0°, 60°, and 80°). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be lower than 0.02 nm. The optimum PIXE conditions (energy, angle) were applied for determining the Al doping concentration in thin (1 µm) 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer. The Al concentration as determined by PIXE was found to be 3.9x1020 at/cm3 in good agreement with SIMS measurements, and the LOD was estimated to be 6x1018 at/cm3.
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Authors: Maher Soueidan, Bilal Nsouli, Gabriel Ferro, Ghassan Younes
Abstract: In this work the capability of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to monitor a rapid, non-destructive and accurate quantification of Al on and in Si-based matrix is discussed. Optimization of PIXE acquisition parameters was performed using as reference a thin Al film (2.5 nm) thermally evaporated onto silicon substrate. In order to improve the sensitivity for Al detection and quantitative determination, a systematic study was undertaken using proton ion beam at different energies (from 0.3 to 3 MeV) with a different tilting angle (0°, 60°, and 80°). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be lower than 0.2 nm. The optimum PIXE conditions (energy, angle) were applied for determining the Al doping concentration in thin (1 µm) 4H-SiC homoepitaxial layer. The Al concentration as determined by PIXE was found to be 3.9x1020 at/cm3 in good agreement with SIMS measurements, and the LOD was estimated to be 6x1018 at/cm3.
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Authors: Nada Habka, Veronique Soulière, Jean Marie Bluet, Maher Soueidan, Gabriel Ferro, Bilal Nsouli
Abstract: We report an optical study of 3C-SiC layers grown on 6H-SiC substrates by VLS mechanism using a Si-Ge melt. The photoluminescence and μ-Raman results show a clear and significant incorporation of germanium in the layers from the melt. A photoluminescence emission attributed to Ge related transitions is observed in the infrared region. μ-Raman spectra exhibit two peaks related to the Ge-Ge and Si-Ge bonds. From the characteristics of these Raman peaks, it was found that the amount of Ge incorporated inside the 3C layers increases with increasing Ge content of the melt. This has been verified by Particle-Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) measurements which gave a Ge concentration varying from ~ 1x1019 to ~ 1x1020 at.cm-3. All these results suggest that Ge incorporates in the VLS grown 3C layers by forming Si-Ge-(C) nanoclusters.
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Authors: Mohamad Roumie, Sayed Abboudy, Maryam Al Sabbagh, Husam Abu-Safe, Maher Soueidan, Bilal Nsouli
Abstract: An absorber-emitter system was fabricated using a multi-layer structure of amorphous silicon and silicon oxide thin films. The layers were deposited using RF magnetron sputtering system. The thin films were alternated in a periodic structure to form a one-dimensional photonic crystal. Each period in the crystal consisted of one layer of 57 nm thick silicon and a 100 nm thick silicon oxide layer. Several samples were prepared consisted on different periods (N= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry technique (RBS) was used to verify the number of layers and their alternation, checking the thicknesses and determine the real stoichiometry in each layer of Si and SiOx.
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Authors: Richard Nader, Michel Kazan, E. Moussaed, Charbel Zgheib, Bilal Nsouli, Jörg Pezoldt, Pierre M. Masri
Abstract: In this paper we present a methodology to affect the stability of polytypes formation during heteroepitaxial growth of SiC on Si. This methodology is based on the investigation of growth related parameters. These parameters involve substrate temperature, effect of impurities on surface diffusion, strain, and super-saturation conditions as solved by using SSMBE growth (Solid Source molecular beam epitaxy).
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