Papers by Author: Christian Klinkenberg

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Authors: Christian Klinkenberg, C. Bilgen, T. Boecher, J. Schlüter
Abstract: Industrial thin slab casting and direct rolling processing started in 1989 with the world’s first CSP® plant at Crawfordsville (USA). Since this time CSP® and competing thin slab casting and direct rolling concepts have been developed to a standard process for hot strip production. Typical features of the CSP® process are the homogeneous structural and mechanical properties all along the strip. Direct hot rolling of thin slabs may be followed by a well defined cooling pattern to produce fine-grained HSLA steel or multiphase hot strip on the runout table. The product range covers low carbon as well as medium and high carbon steel grades comprising IF-, HSLA-, API-, electrical- and multiphase steel grades. CSP® processed thin hot strip is used for non-exposed parts and may substitute cold rolled strip. Hot strip from thin slab can be easily further processed to cold rolled and/or surface treated strip. Today process and material developments e.g. go for energy saving, rise in productivity, advanced surface requirements, HSLA and multiphase steel grades combining higher strength and ductility as well as multiphase steel grades for hot dip galvanizing.
3610
Authors: Wolfgang Bleck, Gerhard Pariser, Sebastian Trute, Christian Klinkenberg
1201
Authors: Christian Klinkenberg, C. Bilgen, J.M. Rodriguez-Ibabe, Beatriz López, P. Uranga
Abstract: The use of CSP® thin slab casting followed by direct thermomechanical rolling is well placed for the production of low-carbon Nb microalloyed steels. In this process thin slabs of between 48 and 90 mm thickness are cast and directly hot rolled to hot strip typically between 1 and 12 mm thick. To obtain optimum strength and toughness property combinations in a direct rolling process, hot rolling has to compact the dendritic as-cast microstructure and to achieve a fine-grained microstructure. This affords a two-stage rolling strategy with start rolling above the recrystallization stop temperature and finish rolling in the non-recrystallization temperature range. Temperature and deformation in the first stand should be as high as possible in order to delete the initial as-cast microstructure by complete recrystallization. Based on these considerations, SMS Siemag further developed the CSP® concept including features allowing isothermal rolling in the first stands of the finishing mill. The present contribution gives the results of a laboratory study of this innovative approach. The report concludes with resulting new plant configurations for improved high strength and API linepipe grade production.
2752
Authors: Christian Klinkenberg
Abstract: The use of Niobium as a microalloying element is particularly beneficial in increasing strength and toughness through its ability to control austenite grain size during reheating, and via grain refinement and precipitation hardening after austenite transformation. Steels with lower carbon contents can thus be utilised, further enhancing toughness and weldability.
4261
Authors: Carl Peter Reip, Christian Klinkenberg, Long Chang Tong, Pavel Hora
Abstract: Industrial thin slab casting and direct rolling processing started in 1989 with the world’s first CSP® plant at Crawfordsville (USA). Since this time CSP® and competing thin slab casting and direct rolling concepts have been developed to a standard process for hot strip production [1]. Typical features of the CSP® process are the homogeneous structural and mechanical properties all along the strip. Direct hot rolling of thin slabs may be followed by a well defined cooling pattern to produce hot strip from high strength multiphase steel, like dualphase (DP) grades, on the runout table. These steel grades are characterized by a favorable combination of strength and ductility based on hard martensitic particles embedded in a ductile ferritic matrix. This paper highlights the mechanical properties of hot rolled DP steel from CSP® production. To this purpose, multiple tests and modeling have been applied to determine e.g. r-values, forming limit curves and yield locus. In addition, forming simulation as well as laboratory and industrial deep drawing tests have been performed.
2278
Authors: Christian Klinkenberg, K.-E. Hensger
Abstract: The use of thin slab casting and direct rolling is well suited for the production of niobium microalloyed low-carbon high strength linepipe grades. The slabs have excellent surface quality. Thermomechanical processing by controlling hot work hardening and softening processes of austenite and its polymorphic transformation into ferrite results in a powerful microstructure refinement. This is a sound basis for setting high strength, combined with excellent ductility and toughness.
253
Authors: Christian Klinkenberg, Helmut Klein
Abstract: The precipitation and dissolution behavior of niobium carbo-nitrides is of particular interest for many technical applications. Niobium-microalloyed high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels are widely used in civil construction, automobile and line pipe applications. These steels rely on thermomechanical processing. In this context, coupled processes like thin slab casting and thermomechanical rolling of microalloyed steel grades require most precise information on the precipitation state at the individual processing steps. Reasonable equations for the solubility product at thermal equilibrium can be taken from literature but kinetics is largely unknown. Conventional X-ray technology is not able to detect small volume fractions below 0.1% of nanoscale precipitates. Investigation of nanoscale niobium precipitates by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis or chemical extraction methods is common practice. However, TEM suffers from statistical relevance and chemical extraction will not give information on particle distribution and orientation. Investigation by high energy synchrotron X-ray of about 100 keV offers statistical relevance as volumes of several cubic millimeters are regarded. This large reflecting sample volume allows to detect nanometer-sized particles and provides very high angular resolution leading to an exact determination of the reflection peaks. The wavelength of around 0.12 Å is able to analyze nanometer-sized particles. Due to the high energy of the applied synchrotron radiation, precipitation and dissolution reactions could be observed during thermal treatment inside a soaking furnace. The results establish this technology for analysis of nanoscale niobium carbo-nitride precipitates
948
Authors: Christian Klinkenberg, Helmut Klein, Jörg Gerlach
Abstract: This investigation aimed at the understanding of texture development during r-value determination by uniaxial tensile testing. Special emphasis was given to examine the texture evolution in the deformation zone of the tensile test specimen during mechanical r-value determination. The textures of different sheet steel grades were investigated in different deformation stages by the orientation distribution function (ODF) and mechanical testing.
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