Papers by Author: Claudinei dos Santos

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Authors: Helio R. Simoni, Eduardo Saito, Claudinei dos Santos, Felipe Antunes Santos, Alfeu Saraiva Ramos, Olivério Moreira Macedo Silva
Abstract: In this work, the effect of the milling time on the densification of the alumina ceramics with or without 5wt.%Y2O3, is evaluated, using high-energy ball milling. The milling was performed with different times of 0, 2, 5 or 10 hours. All powders, milled at different times, were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction presenting a reduction of the crystalline degree and crystallite size as function of the milling time increasing. The powders were compacted by cold uniaxial pressing and sintered at 1550°C-60min. Green density of the compacts presented an increasing as function of the milling time and sintered samples presented evolution on the densification as function of the reduction of the crystallite size of the milled powders.
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Authors: Claudinei dos Santos, Paula Cipriano da Silva, Luciane Carvalho de Paula, Alexandre Fernandes Habibe, Jefferson Fabrício C. Lins, Walter Soares
Abstract: This paper presents the microstructural characterization of particle systems used in equipment for selective laser sintering. Three distinct commercial metal powders, with chemical composition based on Co-Cr-alloy, were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and particle size distribution. The powders showed regular spherical particles with varying sizes and crystalline phase of Co-solid solution. Different powders present particle size among 55nm and 245 nm. This behavior affects the sinterability of samples submitted to the selective laser sintering.
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Authors: Claudinei dos Santos, Pedro H.B. Prado, Fernando dos Santos Ortega
Abstract: Gelcasting is a novel method of forming ceramics and has been increasingly employed in preparing complex-shaped, near-net-shape advanced materials. In this work, alumina, zirconia and alumina-zirconia bioceramics were shaped by gelcasting, using MAM-MBAM monomer system, with subsequent sintering and characterization. High purity tetragonal ZrO2 (3mol%Y2O3) and .Al2O3 powders were used as starting powders. Powder mixture containing 80 wt.% of alumina and 20 wt.% of tetragonal zirconia were obtained by milling/homogenization. In all cases, the suspension obtained had at least 55 vol.% solid loading. Ceramic bodies were demolded, dried and characterized by green relative density. The compacts were sintered in air at 1550 and 15750C, for 120 minutes, with controlled heating-rate to facilitate organic compounds removal. Sintered samples were characterized by relative density, and analyzed by X-Ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Hardness and fracture toughness were determined using Vicker’s indentation method.
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Authors: Camila Aparecida Araújo da Silva, Luiz Cláudio Lemos de Assis, Roberto de Oliveira Magnago, Alexandre Alvarenga Palmeira, Gabriel Rocha Lellis Villanova, Claudinei dos Santos
Abstract: In this work, compacting powders of different ZrO2(Y2O3) are investigated relating the particle size, compaction pressure, and use of binders. Powders of ZrO2 stabilized with 3mol % Y2O3 with an average particle size of 0.15 to 0.7μm presence of both bonding and 0.15μm without addition of binder, were uniaxially compacted with pressures of 30 to 115MPa. Green density between 40% and 50% were obtained. The results indicate that powders sized less densification above 1400°C, while the larger sizes only after reaching full densification above 1500°C. Crystallographic characterization indicates that the powders have a percentage of monoclinic phases in the range of 15% to 26%, but only after sintering tetragonal phase is identified.
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Authors: Sandro Aparecido Baldacim, Olivério Moreira Macedo Silva, Claudinei dos Santos, Cosme Roberto Moreira Silva
Abstract: The important factor to consider for successful ceramics composites development is the need of matching the whiskers and matrix characteristics, taking into account the chemical compatibility of the sintering aids utilized. The purpose of this work was to analyze and compare use of rare earth concentrate (CTR) and yttrium oxide, as sintering aids, and its influence in the densification and physical/mechanical properties of hot pressed and sintered Si3N4-SiC(w). The CTR powder materials present high yttrium oxide percentage and its production is cheaper than the additives usually used in ceramic materials, such as Y2O3. For physical and mechanical properties evaluation, specific mass, crystalline phases, micrographs analysis, microhardness and fracture toughness were measured, showing similar results between the two sintering aids. Therefore, this study shows the possibility of obtaining low processing cost products with the use of rare earth concentrate. Meanwhile, more characterization steps are necessary for analyzing its behavior at elevated temperatures.
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Authors: Claudinei dos Santos, Kurt Strecker, M.J.R. Barboza, Sandro Aparecido Baldacim, Francisco Piorino Neto, Olivério Moreira Macedo Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira Silva
Abstract: The creep behavior of hot-pressed Si3N4 ceramics was investigated. The proposal of this work is to investigate the use of yttrium-rare earth oxide mixture, CRE2O3, produced at FAENQUIL, as sintering additive, since the cost of production of this material is 80% inferior to Y2O3. These ceramics were obtained by uniaxial hotpressing using different additive contents and mixtures (CRE2O3-Al2O3 or CRE2O3- AlN). Compressive creep tests were carried out at 13000C and 300 MPa, in air. The Si3N4-CRE2O3-Al2O3 ceramics demonstrated that the creep resistance is inversely proportional to the additive content. Mixtures with high intergranular phase content presented low creep resistance due to high oxidation and more pronounced softening of the intergranular phase. Si3N4-CRE2O3-AlN ceramics demonstrated better creep resistance with a steady-state creep rate of 7 x 10-8 s-1. This behavior is related to the a-SiAlON content, a solid solution of Si3N4 that incorporates a great fraction of intergranular phase, decreasing the amount of intergranular phase.
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Authors: Claudinei dos Santos, Kurt Strecker, M.J.R. Barboza, Sandro Aparecido Baldacim, Francisco Piorino Neto, Olivério Moreira Macedo Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira Silva
Abstract: a−SiAlON (a’) is a solid solution of a−Si3N4, where Si and N are substituted by Al and O, respectively. The principal stabilizers of the a’-phase are Mg, Ca, Y and rare earth cations. In this way, the possible use of the yttrium-rare earth oxide mixture, CRE2O3, produced at FAENQUIL, in obtaining these SiAlONs was investigated. Samples were sintered by hotpressing at 17500C, for 30 minutes, using a sintering pressure of 20 MPa. Creep behavior of the hot-pressed CRE-a-SiAlON/b-Si3N4 ceramic was investigated, using compressive creep tests, in air, at 1280 to 1340 0C, under stresses of 200 to 350 MPa, for 70 hours. This type of ceramic exhibited high creep and oxidation resistance. Its improved high-temperature properties are mainly due to the absence or reduced amount of intergranular phases, because of the incorporation of the metallic cations from the liquid phase formed during sintering into the Si3N4 structure, forming a a’/b composite.
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Authors: Claudinei dos Santos, Kurt Strecker, Francisco Piorino Neto, Cosme Roberto Moreira Silva, Flávia A. Almeida, Rui F. Silva
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the creep behaviour of Si3N4 based ceramics obtained by uniaxial hot-pressing. As sintering additive, an yttrium-rare earth oxide solid solution, designed RE2O3, that shows similar characteristics to pure Y2O3, was used. Samples were sintered using high-purity α-Si3N4 powder, with additive mixtures based on RE2O3/Al2O3 or RE2O3/AlN, at 5 and 20 vol.%, respectively. The sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and density. Specimens of 3x3x6 mm3 were submitted to creep tests, under compressive stresses between 100 and 350 MPa at temperatures ranging from 1250 to 13750C in air. Samples with RE2O3/Al2O3 showed β-Si3N4 as crystalline phase, with grains of high aspect ratio, and a relative density around 99% of the theoretical density. The Si3N4/RE2O3/AlN samples presented α-Si3N4 solid solution, designed α-SiAlON, with a more equiaxed microstructure and slightly lower relative density (96-98%). The results of creep tests indicated that these ceramics containing α-SiAlON are the more creep resistant, with steady-state creep rates around 10-4 h-1, with stress exponents (n) in the range 0.67-2.53, indicating grain boundary sliding as the main creep mechanism.
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Authors: Claudinei dos Santos, Kurt Strecker, M.J.R. Barboza, Francisco Piorino Neto, Olivério Moreira Macedo Silva, Cosme Roberto Moreira Silva
Abstract: Commercial α−Si3N4, Al2O3 and a mixed yttrium and rare earth oxides, RE2O3, were used as starting-powders. Powder batches were milled using different Al2O3/RE2O3 contents, as additive. Hot-pressing was done at 1750oC-30 min-20MPa in N2 atmosphere. Specimens neat to 6x3x3mm3 were polished and characterized by XRD and SEM. Specimens were submitted to creep tests, under compressive stresses between 100 and 350 MPa at temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1300oC in air. Higher additive amounts resulted in larger grains of higher aspect ratios and in a decreased anisotropy in the hot-pressed ceramics. The compressive creep behavior depends on the intergranular phase content. While higher amounts of additives resulted in higher creep rates, • ε , and higher stress exponents, n, the activation energy Qss, has been inferior for samples with lower additive contents. Grain sliding has been identified to be the predominant mechanism responsible for creep deformation of these ceramics.
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Authors: L.E. Mukaeda, Simone Pereira Taguchi, A. Robin, H.J. Izario, F.S. Salazar, Claudinei dos Santos
Abstract: ZrO2 ceramics are one of the most important materials used in dental prostheses production, due to their excellent mechanical resistance and chemical inertness in the mouth environment. Nevertheless, the combination of low pHs and fluoride presence is able to reduce the chemical stability of these ceramics. In this work, the resistance of commercial blocks of micrometric and nanometric sized Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramics (ProtMat Materiais Avançados® and Ivoclar®) was evaluated in Fusayama artificial saliva of different pHs with (and without) the presence of fluoride ions. The study was based on the analysis of the amount of Zr4+ and Y3+ ions dissolved in the artificial saliva after different exposure times using ICP OES technique. The XRD technique was also employed to investigate the phase transformations occurring during the degradation process in artificial saliva. The micrometric sized ZrO2 ceramics presented higher resistance in the artificial saliva than nanometric sized structures.
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