Papers by Author: Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes

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Authors: Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, Karimbi Koosappa Mahesh, Corneliu Marius Crăciunescu, João Pedro Oliveira, Norbert Schell, Rosa Maria Miranda, Luisa Quintino, José Luis Ocaña
Abstract: The demand of emerging joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA) has become of great importance, as their functional properties, namely shape memory effect (SME) and superelasticity (SE) present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications. Literature shows that significant efforts have been conducted on laser welding of these alloys, although very limited results concerning mechanical properties are repeatedly achieved. A better understanding of the mechanical behaviour of these welded joints may be got through a detailed analysis of the structural characteristics of the material from the base metal to the weld bead. Such studies have been carried out on a series of Ni-rich Ni-Ti SMA laser welded plates using synchrotron radiation.
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Authors: Alexandre Velhinho, P.D. Sequeira, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, José D. Botas, L.A. Rocha
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Authors: Alexandre Velhinho, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, S.C. Ferreira, L.A. Rocha, Gerard Vignoles, P. Cloetens
Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of the possibilities offered by X-ray computed microtomography, and particularly synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography, regarding metal matrix composite characterization, emphasis being placed in the case of Al-based functionally graded materials. Examples are provided concerning the characterization of the reinforcement population, interfacial properties, in-situ transformation and damage evolution. The specific needs of the technique and limitations to its widespread use are mentioned.
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Authors: Rui Jorge C. Silva, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
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Authors: Rui M.S. Martins, Norbert Schell, H. Reuther, Luís Pereira, Rui Jorge C. Silva, Karimbi Koosappa Mahesh, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
Abstract: Ni-Ti SMA are smart materials undergoing first order martensitic transformations driven by temperature and/or stress. In the form of film they are very attractive candidates for microelectro- mechanical system (MEMS) applications. Future directions include the production of functionally graded films by changing deliberately the ratio Ti/Ni across their thickness. However, for the successful development of this type of films, it is important to characterize, model and control the variations in composition, crystalline structure and transformation temperatures. Our approach is in-situ XRD study of the actual growth of the films of varying composition along the thickness carried out using a deposition chamber installed at a synchrotron radiation beamline. These studies were complemented with ex-situ analysis techniques. The results achieved on a Ni-Ti film co-sputtered from Ni-Ti and Ti targets on a TiN buffer layer are presented in this paper. The deposition started by using optimised parameters for a near equiatomic composition. After 1 h (≈330 nm thick film), the Ti power was increased from 20 to 25 W, leading to the precipitation of Ti2Ni. The evolution of the lattice parameter values of the B2 phase, calculated from the corresponding XRD data, is clearly linked with the increase of the Ti power. The depth profile of the atomic concentrations determined by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) is in agreement with the in situ XRD results. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity was used to monitor phase transformations, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has shown the presence of twinned martensite on the film’s surface at room temperature.
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Authors: M.J. Furtado, Rui Jorge C. Silva, M.F. Araújo, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
Abstract: Twenty brass Chinese cash coins with complex compositions were studied for a better understanding of the metallurgical cash production in China, during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Elemental composition was obtained through energy-dispersive micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of small cleaned areas on the coins rims. Results showed that these brass alloys (Cu-Zn) frequently contain up to 3% Sn, have highly variable Pb content (from n.d. up to 14%) and Fe, Sb, and As as minor elements. Microstructures were assessed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and preliminary micro X-ray diffraction analysis. All the coins present typical as-cast microstructures although very fine-grained, which are supported by binary (Cu-Zn) and ternary (Cu-Zn-Sn) equilibrium phase diagrams, that explain microstructural differences due to the presence of Sn in these brasses.
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Authors: Filipe Neves, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, Jose Brito Correia
Abstract: In the present study, equiatomic powder blends of Ni and Ti were mechanically activated for a short period of time in a planetary ball mill using different levels of energy input. The characterization of the mechanically activated materials was achieved by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and chemical analysis (oxygen and nitrogen measurements). During mechanical activation no phase transformation was induced and the high temperature reaction between Ni and Ti elemental powders was shifted to lower temperatures. Moreover, the temperature and the intensity of the exothermic reaction, i.e. the reactivity observed in the powder blends, decreased with the increase in the level of milling energy input. A maximum oxygen content of 0.39 wt% was measured after mechanical activation.
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Authors: Andersan dos Santos Paula, João Paulo H. G. Canejo, Rui Jorge C. Silva, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
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Authors: Alexandre Velhinho, P.D. Sequeira, Rui Miguel S. Martins, Gerard Vignoles, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, José D. Botas, L.A. Rocha
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Authors: Alexandre Velhinho, Gerard Vignoles, P. Cloetens, X. Thibault, Elodie Boller, Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes, L.A. Rocha, José D. Botas
Abstract: Reliability of functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMCs) for automotive components is still dependent on the detailed knowledge of the mechanisms of the microstructural build-up, for instance on the mechanisms leading to the distribution and relative positions of the reinforcing particles. In order to assess the influence of the SiC particle size on the 3-D inter-particle connectivity in functionally graded Al/SiCp composites produced by centrifugal casting, X-ray microtomography experiments were performed at the ID19 beamline in ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility). The FGMMCs consisted of an Al-10Si-2Mg alloy matrix, reinforced by an average SiC particle volume fraction of 0.10; two different average sizes were used: 37 µm and 12 µm. The holographic modification of the X-ray CMT (Computer Micro- Tomography) method allowed to obtain neatly contrasted images, as opposed to classical CMT.Good agreement was found between the particle size evaluated by CMT and by laser interferometry. Particle clustering has been evaluated in number and volume, showing that a lower mean particle size is related to more clustering. Such an adverse effect relies on the importance of particle/liquid alloy surface tension. Also, the mean particle size has been evaluated as a function of particle number within a cluster: as expected, the larger a cluster, the larger the particles inside it.
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