Papers by Author: Gabriel Ferro

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Authors: Olivier Kim-Hak, Maher Soueidan, Gabriel Ferro, Olivier Dezellus, Ariadne Andreadou, Davy Carole, Efstathios K. Polychroniadis, Jean Claude Viala
Abstract: Twin-free 3C-SiC layers were recently obtained by Vapour-Liquid-Solid mechanism on a a-SiC(0001) substrate using Si-Ge melt. The formation of cubic layers is rather unexpected since growth from the melt is known to promote lateral growth and should thus give homoepitaxial layers. The study of the early stage of such growth, after a simple contact between the melt and the substrate (without adding propane), reveals the precipitation of 3C-SiC elongated islands upon the substrate surface. The chemical interactions inside the Ge-Si-C ternary phase diagram suggest an initial dissolution of the SiC seed in contact with a Ge-rich melt (below 1200°C). When the Si content of the melt subsequently increases upon heating, the dissolved carbon atoms precipitate on the seed surface under the form of 3C-SiC islands. When propane is added, these islands enlarge and coalesce to form a complete 3C layer.
Authors: Marina Radulaski, Thomas Babinec, Jing Yuan Linda Zhang, Sonia Buckley, Yousif Kelaita, Kai Müller, Konstantinos Lagoudakis, Kassem Alassaad, Gabriel Ferro, Jelena Vučković
Abstract: We fabricated and characterized record small microdisk resonators in thin (210 nm) 3C-SiC film grown on Si (100) substrate. It was found to support high quality factor whispering gallery modes at visible wavelengths. We demonstrated room temperature coupling of these modes to the intrinsic photoluminescence of 3C-SiC at room temperatures and identified their polarization. Finally, we discussed applications for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation from infrared visible wavelengths.
Authors: Jean Lorenzzi, Romain Esteve, Nikoletta Jegenyes, Sergey A. Reshanov, Adolf Schöner, Gabriel Ferro
Abstract: In this work we report on the growth and preparation of 3C-SiC(111) material for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) application. In order to achieve reasonable material quality to prepare MOS capacitors several and crucial steps are needed: 1) heteroepitaxial growth of high quality 3C-SiC(111) layer by vapour-liquid-solid mechanism on 6H-SiC(0001) substrate, 2) surface polishing, 3) homoepitaxial re-growth by chemical vapour deposition and 4) use of an advanced oxidation process combining plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) SiO2 and short post-oxidation steps in wet oxygen. Combining all these processes the interface traps density (Dit)can be drastically decreased down to 1.2  1010 eV-1cm-2 at 0.63 eV below the conduction band. To our knowledge, these values are the best ever reported for SiC material in general and 3C-SiC in particular.
Authors: Arthur Vo-Ha, Mickaël Rebaud, Davy Carole, Mihai Lazar, Alexandre Tallaire, Veronique Soulière, Jose Carlos Pinero, Daniel Araújo, Gabriel Ferro
Abstract: This work deals with the localized epitaxial growth of SiC on (100) diamond substrate using the Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) transport. An epitaxial relationship of grown SiC with the seed was succesfully achieved when inserting a silicidation step before the VLS growth. This silicidation consists in the formation of a SiC intermediate layer on the diamond substrate by solid-state reaction with a silicon layer deposited at 1000 or 1350 °C. On the 1350°C formed SiC buffer layer, p-doped 3C-SiC(100) islands elongated in the <110> directions were obtained after VLS growth. For the 1000°C buffer layer, the SiC deposit after VLS growth is much denser but mostly polycrystalline. Interfacial reactivity and diffusion are considered to explain the obtained results.
Authors: Veronique Soulière, Davy Carole, Massimo Camarda, Judith Woerle, Ulrike Grossner, Olivier Dezellus, Gabriel Ferro
Abstract: The aim of this study was to find conditions allowing the "natural" formation of a regular and controllable step bunched morphology on a 4H-SiC seed without the need of any SiC deposition. This was performed by melting a bulk piece of Si on a 4°off 4H seed in the temperature range of 1500 - 1600°C, for 15 min. After etching the remaining Si, the 4H surface was found to be successfully highly step bunched with steps very parallel and regular. A mechanism of dissolution-precipitation was proposed, which could occur both on a short (step to step) and long (centre to periphery) range. This process is kinetically limited at low temperature (1500-1550°C) and considered to be close to the equilibrium at 1600°C.
Authors: Didier Chaussende, Christophe Jacquier, Gabriel Ferro, Jean Claude Viala, François Cauwet, Yves Monteil
Authors: Massimo Camarda, Judith Woerle, Veronique Soulière, Gabriel Ferro, Hans Sigg, Ulrike Grossner, Jens Gobrecht
Abstract: In this study, we compare the electrical properties of MOS capacitors fabricated on different surface morphologies. Comparing a standard, low-roughness (<1nm), surface with one with a roughness of ~40nm, characterized by big macrosteps and large terraces. We compared the two surfaces for different thermal oxide thicknesses, ranging from dOx = 3.6 nm to dOx = 32 nm. The extracted interface state traps (Dit) shows a small, but systematic, decrease of ~10-15 % for the samples with macrosteps.
Authors: David Méndez, A. Aouni, Daniel Araújo, Etienne Bustarret, Gabriel Ferro, Yves Monteil
Abstract: The effect of the temperature at which the carbon source is introduced in the reactor on the early stages of the carbonization process is analyzed here. Three samples heated up to 1150°C with propane introduction temperatures (Tintro) of 725, 1030 and 1100°C are analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance. The size of the SiC nuclei increases with Tintro. There is also an effect on the strain of the resulting carbonization layer. The electron diffraction pattern of the sample with the highest Tintro shows a fully relaxed 3C-SiC layer, while no evidence of SiC relaxation is present in low Tintro samples where the SiC islands seems to be pseudomorphic.
Authors: Nicolas Thierry-Jebali, Mihai Lazar, Arthur Vo-Ha, Davy Carole, Veronique Soulière, Anne Henry, Dominique Planson, Gabriel Ferro, Leszek Konczewicz, Sylvie Contreras, Christian Brylinski, Pierre Brosselard
Abstract: This work deals with two applications of the Selective Epitaxial Growth of highly p-type doped buried 4H-SiC in Vapor-Liquid-Solid configuration (SEG-VLS). The first application is the improvement of the Specific Contact Resistance (SCR) of contacts made on such p-type material. As a result of the extremely high doping level, SCR values as low as 1.3x10-6 Ω.cm2 have been demonstrated. Additionally, the high Al concentration of the SEG-VLS 4H-SiC material induces a lowering of the Al acceptor ionization energy down to 40 meV. The second application is the fabrication of PiN diodes with SEG-VLS emitter and guard-rings peripheral protection. Influence of some process parameters and crystal orientation on the forward and reverse characteristics of the PiN diodes is discussed.
Authors: Kassem Alassaad, Veronique Soulière, François Cauwet, Davy Carole, Gabriel Ferro
Abstract: The interaction of liquid Ge and Si droplets, deposited by CVD, on the surface of 4H-SiC single-crystals is studied. It was found that at 1500 °C Ge forms micrometric droplets while Si forms nanometric dots. While the Si dots do not seem to interact significantly with SiC, the Ge droplets have the tendency to dissolve the Si from the seed. This mechanism not only happens during deposition but also during the cooling. If the cooling rate is too slow, Ge evaporates from the droplets while dissolving Si so that, at the end, the droplets look like to have been fully converted from Ge to Si.
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