Papers by Author: Gerhard Wilde

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Authors: Harald Rösner, Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: In this study we show that in-situ tensile tests performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) in combination with high-resolution TEM are feasible, and, that this method is appropriate to elucidate the deformation processes in nanocrystalline materials directly. First results on nanocrystalline Pd produced by repeated cold-rolling with intermediate folding of metal sheets are presented revealing that the material ruptured during the in-situ tensile tests along grain boundaries. Deformation twinning was observed in grains next to the crack indicating that the deformation processes must have originated from the grain boundaries.
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Authors: Xavier Sauvage, Gerhard Wilde, Ruslan Valiev
Abstract: Some nanocrystaline Ni was prepared by repeated cold rolling with intermediate folding (F&R). The material was then processed by High Pressure Torsion (HPT) to study the grain evolution under additional Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD). Microstructures were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and the impurity distribution was analyzed by Atom Probe Tomography (APT). In this paper, we discuss about the influence of impurities on the grain growth during HPT and on the grain size reduction mechanism during SPD.
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Authors: Wolfgang Lechner, Werner Puff, Gerhard Wilde, R. Würschum
Abstract: A positron annihilation study of free volumes was performed on Cu-Zr and Al-Sm alloys in the course of repeated cold rolling (RCR) in order to contribute to the microscopic understanding of the complex processes of solid-state amorphization and nanocrystallization. In addition to positron lifetime spectroscopy, which yields information on the size of free volumes, twodimensional Doppler broadening technique was applied in order to study the local chemical environment of free volumes on an atomistic scale. Both in Cu60Zr40 and Al92Sm8 a characteristic variation of the chemical environment of free volumes with the number of folding and rolling (F&R) cycles could be observed. In the first (Al-Sm) and intermediate state (Cu-Zr) of F&R, free volumes with an enhanced amount of Sm or Zr content in the local environment occur, indicating interfacial segregation or the formation of solute-vacancy complexes. Upon further F&R cycling, a complete (Cu-Zr) or partially amorphous structure (Al-Sm) is obtained with the free volumes exhibiting a chemical environment characteristic of the average chemical composition. In contrast to melt-spun or ball-milled amorphous alloys, free volumes of the size of a few missing atoms are found in amorphous alloys prepared by RCR presumably due to strong athermal conditions of F&R cycling.
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Authors: Matthias Wegner, Jörn Leuthold, Sergiy V. Divinski, Daria Setman, Michael Zehetbauer, Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: Copper of different purity levels (4N, 5N) produced by High Pressure Torsion (HPT) with varying processing parameters is investigated utilizing the radiotracer technique. While the degree of deformation is constant, the effect of the applied quasi-hydrostatic pressure and of the impurity concentration on the as deformed samples is analysed. By applying the radio tracer method micro structural aspects are revealed that are not easily accessible by conventional methods. The measurements indicate the formation of a percolating porosity during the HPT process as a function of the applied pressure and (although less pronounced) of the impurity concentration.
105
Authors: Sergiy V. Divinski, Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: The paper provides an overview of recent results of the radiotracer investigations of short-circuit diffusion in ultra fine grained (UFG) materials produced by severe plastic deformation (SPD). Different material classes (copper of different purity levels and Cu alloys) are considered. The study is focused on the existence of non-equilibrium grain boundaries after SPD. Although a dominant contribution of common high-angle grain boundaries with very similar diffusivities as those in the corresponding coarse-grained material is established, much faster diffusion rates are also observed experimentally. The nature and kinetic properties of these “high mobility” paths in different materials are investigated and critically discussed.
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Authors: Z.B. Wang, K. Wang, K. Lu, Gerhard Wilde, Sergiy V. Divinski
Abstract: A nanostructured surface layer with a gradient microstructure was produced on a Cu plate by means of the surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). Diffusion of Ni in the nanostructured layer was investigated by the radiotracer technique at temperatures from 383 to 438 K. The measured diffusion profiles consist of two distinct sections with different slopes, the steep one corresponding to the top surface layer with the grain size of 10 to 25 nm and the shallow one corresponding to a subsurface layer with a grain size of 25 to 100 nm. The effective diffusivities derived from both sections are more than 2 orders of magnitudes higher than the grain boundary diffusivities in coarse-grained Cu. The significantly accelerated diffusion rates are expected to be associated with the “non-equilibrium” states of interfaces in the nanostructured surface layer induced by SMAT. The difference between the diffusivities in the top and sub- surface layer might result from the fact that most interfaces developed from twin boundaries in the former while produced by dislocation activities in the latter.
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Authors: Vladimir V. Popov, E.N. Popova, D.D. Kuznetsov, A.V. Stolbovsky, E.V. Shorohov, Gerrit Reglitz, Sergiy V. Divinski, Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: Various modes of severe plastic deformation (SPD), such as high-pressure torsion (HPT) at cryogenic temperature, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and dynamic channel-angular pressing (DCAP), have been applied for nanostructuring of Ni, and the thermal stability of the structure obtained has been studied. The nanocrystalline structure with average grain sizes of 80 nm and the microhardness of 6200 MPa is produced by HPT in liquid nitrogen. DCAP and ECAP result in the submicrocrystalline structure of a mixed type, with ultra-fine grains separated by high-angle boundaries along with deformation bands and coarse cells with low-angle dislocation boundaries. The thermal stability of the structures obtained by ECAP and DCAP is approximately the same, and it is higher than after the HPT at cryogenic temperature.
109
Authors: Sergiy V. Divinski, K. Anantha Padmanabhan, Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: Systematic radiotracer diffusion studies on metals present in severely deformed, ultra-fine grained (UFG) states have revealed the existence of ultra-fast transport paths, which include the so-called “non-equilibrium” grain boundaries and other defects including excess free volume. Under certain experimental conditions percolating porosity is produced even in a ductile metal like pure copper. This result indicates the importance of the cavitation phenomena in severe plastic deformation under those conditions. It is well known that micro-cracking can take place in metals rather early, if the local maximum shear stress equals or exceeds the shear yield stress of the material. However, the growth and propagation of these cracks will be postponed till very late in the deformation process because of the intrinsic ductility of metals, the effect of the superimposed hydrostatic component of the stress system and/ or concurrent dynamic recovery/ recrystallization, when the latter two are present (which is likely to be the case, if the severe plastic deformation operation is successful). That is, the stage in which crack growth and propagation is present represents a material state in which the scope for further deformation is exhausted and fracture processes have taken over. Using these and similar ideas, the load required for equal channel angular pressing, the change in the slope of the Hall-Petch plot with decreasing grain size and the theoretical limit for the smallest grain size attainable in a metal subjected to a severe plastic deformation (SPD) process are predicted and checked against experimental results.
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Authors: Jörn Leuthold, Matthias Wegner, Sergiy V. Divinski, K. Anantha Padmanabhan, Daria Setman, Michael Zehetbauer, Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: Disks of copper samples were produced by High Pressure Torsion (HPT). Specimens for tensile creep experiments were cut from the disks and subjected to creep deformation at 348 K to obtain elongations greater than 30%. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to analyze the texture after HPT deformation and after additional tensile elongation.
370
Authors: Gerhard Wilde
Abstract: Repeated cold rolling with intermediate folding (RCR) represents a technique to obtain severe plastic deformation that avoids excessive heating at the internal interfaces and that proceeds without the simultaneous action of a high pressure in the range of several GPa. Aside from the opportunity to obtain amorphous bulk samples, the processing pathway also allows for synthesizing dense, bulk nanocrystalline materials. The sequential combination of different processing routes that drive a material to a different extent -, with different rates - and by different means from thermodynamic equilibrium present new and attractive processing opportunities to obtain bulk nanocrystalline or massive ultrafine grained materials that are widely unexplored. Here, an overview is presented concerning the sequential application of different deformation methods with largely different strain and pressure levels. The basic underlying mechanisms that can lead to ultrafine grained or nanocrystalline microstructures for pure metals or to two-phase nanocomposites or bulk metallic glasses for alloys are discussed and the current state of nanostructure control is highlighted by selected examples.
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