Papers by Author: Ivan Campos-Silva

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Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, N. López-Perrusquia, E. Hernández-Sánchez, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, D. Bravo-Bárcenas, José Martínez-Trinidad
Abstract: The growth of iron borides over the surface of different steels is of high anisotropy. It was determined that the anisotropy of borided phases reveals a significant instability of properties in service. One of the techniques to determine the effect of anisotropy on the mechanical properties of boride layers is the induced-fracture by Vickers microindentation. During the present work, the fracture toughness (KC) of the Fe2B hard coatings has been estimated at the surface of AISI 4140 borided steels. The force criterion of fracture toughness was determined from the extent of brittle cracks originating at the tips of an indenter impression. The indentation loads were established between 1.9 to 9.8 N at three different distances from the borided surface. The KC values were expressed as a function of temperature, treatment time and the indentation distances from the surface. Likewise, the adherence of the coated system was evaluated by Rockwell-C indentation, where the borided steel showed sufficient adhesion.
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Authors: M. Ortíz-Domínguez, Ivan Campos-Silva, José Martínez-Trinidad, Milton Elías-Espinosa, E. Hernández-Sánchez, D. Bravo-Bárcenas
Abstract: The present work estimated the growth kinetics of Fe2B layers formed at the surface of AISI 4140 steels. The thermochemical treatment was applied in order to produce the Fe2B phase, considering temperatures of 1123, 1173, 1223 and 1273 K with five exposure times (2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 h), using a 4 mm thick layer of boron carbide paste over the material surface. The growth of boride layers was described by the mass balance equation between phases in thermodynamic equilibrium, assuming that the growth of boride layers obeys the parabolic growth equation and the boron concentration at the interfaces remains constant. Also, the boron diffusion coefficient at the Fe2B ( ) was established as a function of boriding temperature. Likewise, the parabolic growth constant (k), the instantaneous velocity (v) of the Fe2B/substrate interface and the weight-gain of borided steels were established as a function of the parameters and , which are related to the boride incubation time ( ) and boron surface concentration ( ), respectively.
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Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, N. López-Perrusquia, R. Escobar Galindo, O.A. Gómez-Vargas, E. Hernández-Sánchez
Abstract: The boron diffusion in the Fe2B and FeB borided phases formed at the surface of AISI H13 tool steels during the paste boriding process was estimated. The treatment was carried out at temperatures of 1173, 1223 and 1273 K with 2, 4, 6 and 8 h exposure times for each temperature using a 4 mm layer thickness of boron carbide paste over the material surface. The boride layers were characterized by the GDOES technique to determine in quantitative form the presence of the alloying elements on the borided phases. The boron diffusion coefficients and were determined by the mass balance equation and the boride incubation time assuming that the boride layers obey the parabolic growth law. Also, the mass gain produced by both boride layers at the surface of the tool steels was determined. Finally, the boron diffusion coefficients were interpreted as a function of the treatment temperature, obtaining the activation energy values for the diffusion controlled growth of Fe2B and FeB hard coatings.
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Authors: G. Rodríguez-Castro, Ivan Campos-Silva, José Martínez-Trinidad, U. Figueroa-López, D. Meléndez-Morales, Jesus Vargas-Hernández
Abstract: Some mechanical properties of AISI 1045 borided steels were estimated in the present work. The boriding process was carried out by the powder pack method at 950°C with 8 h of treatment. The fatigue strength on borided notched specimens was evaluated with rotating bending tests (R=1) considering a stress concentration factor (Kt) of 2.53. Likewise, the presence of residual stresses in boride layers was established by the XRD technique. The Daimler-Benz Rockwell C test was used, also, to estimate the strength adhesion of the coated system. The results show a decrease in the fatigue strength of AISI borided steels due to the presence of high porosity in the layers. Finally, the Rockwell-C adhesion test showed no coating failure for the boride layer.
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Authors: N. López-Perrusquia, Ivan Campos-Silva, José Martínez-Trinidad, A. Avilés, E. Alvárez-Castañeda, S. Juárez-Torres
Abstract: The fracture toughness of AISI H13 borided steel and the strength adhesion of the coated system were estimated in the present work. The formation of the layers was carried out by the powder pack boriding process at 1273 K with 8 h of treatment. The fracture toughness (KC) of the layer is estimated at 25 and 45 m from the surface using four different Vickers indentation loads. The KC values were estimated by the extension of Palmqvist cracks parallel and perpendicular to the surface obtained at the indentation corners. The adherence of the layer/substrate was evaluated in qualitative form through the Rockwell-C indentation technique. The results obtained by both techniques, show, in first instance, that the fracture toughness of the boride layer can be expressed in the form (KC) (π/2) > (KC) > (KC) (0). Also, high delamination is obtained around the Rockwell-C indentation prints that denote poor adhesion in the coating-substrate interface.
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Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, E. Hernández-Sánchez, D. Bravo-Bárcenas, O. Bravo-Bárcenas, Marco Antonio Doñu-Ruíz, J. Martínez-Trinidad, J.A. Jiménez-Bernal, Y. Domínguez-Galicia
Abstract: Fracture indentation was applied to estimate the fracture toughness of AISI 1018 borided steels. The Fe2B hard layers were formed using the powder-pack boriding process for two temperatures with 4 and 8 h of exposure times. The fracture toughness of the iron boride layer of the AISI 1018 borided steels was estimated using a Vickers microindentation induced-fracture testing at distances of 15 and 30 m from the surface, applying four loads (0.49, 0.98, 1.96 and 2.9 N). The microcracks generated at the corners of the Vickers microindentation were considered as experimental parameters, which are introduced in a Palmqvist crack model to determine their corresponding fracture toughness KC. As a result, the experimental parameters, such as exposure time and boriding temperature are compared with the resulting fracture toughness of the borided phase.
9
Authors: G. Ramírez, Ivan Campos-Silva, Alexander S. Balankin
Abstract: The fracture toughness of the Fe2B phase was evaluated in this study. Formation of the Fe2B boride is carried out though paste boriding process applied on AISI 1045 steel surface. The treatment was carried out at temperatures of 1193, 1223 and 1273 K for 6 h using a 5 mm thick boron paste. A Vickers microhardness tester was used to generate microcracks at a load of 200g. The indentations were made across the thickness of the iron boride layer at four different distances from the substrate. The experimental results show that the critical stress intensity factor KIC for the Fe2B phase shows a potential law dependence on crack length; this contradicts the concepts of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, which establish that the fracture toughness value is a constant of the material.
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Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, C. VillaVelázquez, R. Escobar, N. López
Abstract: This study evaluates the boron diffusion in the Fe2B phase formed at the surface of AISI 1018 steels during the paste boriding process. The treatment was carried out at temperatures of 1123, 1173, 1223 and 1273 K with 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 h exposure times for each temperature using a 4 mm layer thickness of boron carbide paste over the material surface. The boron diffusion coefficient Fe2B D was determined by the mass balance equation and the boride incubation time assuming that the boride layers obey the parabolic growth law, while the boron concentration profile along the interphase Fe2B/substrate was unknown. The boron diffusion coefficient was interpreted as a function of the treatment temperature, obtaining the activation energy value for diffusion controlled growth of Fe2B boride phase.
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Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, N. López-Perrusquia, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, U. Figueroa-López, E. Hernández-Sánchez
Abstract: This study evaluates the fracture toughness of Fe2B boride layers formed by the paste boriding thermochemical process on an AISI 1018 steel surface. The samples were placed in acrylic molds for the impregnation of boron carbide paste with thickness of 4mm over the sample surfaces to produce the diffusion into the steel. The aforementioned treatment considered one temperature, T= 1273 K, and three exposure times t=5, 6 and 8 h. Later, the borided samples were prepared metallographically to determine the mean values of the layer thicknesses and to produce Vickers microindentations at 45 m from the surface, applying four loads (1.9, 2.9, 4.9 and 9.8 N). The microcracks generated at the corners of the Vickers microindentation were considered as experimental parameters, which are introduced into two Palmqvist cracks models to determine their corresponding fracture toughness KC. As a result, the experimental parameters, such as exposure time and applied load are compared with the resulting fracture toughness of the borided phase.
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Authors: Ivan Campos-Silva, M. Ortíz-Domínguez, José Martínez-Trinidad, N. López-Perrusquia, E. Hernández-Sánchez, Giselle Ramírez-Sandoval, Ramon Escobar-Galindo
Abstract: Some physicochemical and mechanical properties of surface hard coatings obtained by the paste-boriding process are summarized in this work. Different grades of borided ferrous alloys were used to develop the formation of surface layers type Fe2B or FeB/Fe2B. Furthermore, in order to characterize the nature of boride layers, some classical techniques are presented and discussed such as Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry (GDOES), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and estimation of residual stresses by X-Ray Diffraction method. Also, the morphology of borided interfaces was evaluated by concepts of fractal theory.
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