Papers by Author: James C. Culbertson

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Authors: Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Joseph L. Tedesco, Charles R. Eddy, Glenn G. Jernigan, James C. Culbertson, Paul M. Campbell, J.M. McCrate, S.A. Kitt, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Graphene layers were created on both C and Si faces of semi-insulating, on-axis, 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The process was performed under high vacuum (<10-4 mbar) in a commercial chemical vapor deposition SiC reactor. A method for H2 etching the on-axis substrates was developed to produce surface steps with heights of 0.5 nm on the Si-face and 1.0 to 1.5 nm on the C-face for each polytype. A process was developed to form graphene on the substrates immediately after H2 etching and Raman spectroscopy of these samples confirmed the formation of graphene. The morphology of the graphene is described. For both faces, the underlying substrate morphology was significantly modified during graphene formation; surface steps were up to 15 nm high and the uni-form step morphology was sometimes lost. Mobilities and sheet carrier concentrations derived from Hall Effect measurements on large area (16 mm square) and small area (2 and 10 m square) samples are presented and shown to compare favorably to recent reports.
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Authors: Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Luke O. Nyakiti, Jennifer K. Hite, Orest J. Glembocki, Francisco J. Bezares, Joshua D. Caldwell, Eugene A. Imhoff, Karl D. Hobart, James C. Culbertson, Yoosuf N. Picard, Virginia D. Wheeler, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Homo- and heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC layers were grown on 4H-SiC step-free mesas. The yields of smooth, defect-free mesas were ~ 17% for both intentionally and unintentionally doped films, while those with screw dislocations and multiple stepped surfaces were ~ 22%. The electronic and structural properties of the mesas were found on a micrometer-sized length scale using µ-PL and µ-Raman, respectively. 3C-SiC mesas were found to have complete 3C-SiC coverage with some of the mesas having electronic defects, while other mesas were found to be defect-free.
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Authors: D. Kurt Gaskill, Jennifer K. Hite, James C. Culbertson, Glenn G. Jernigan, Joseph L. Tedesco, Luke O. Nyakiti, Virginia D. Wheeler, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, N.Y. Garces, Charles R. Eddy
Abstract: The growth of epitaxial graphene on C-face 6H-SiC substrates is investigated using pro-cess conditions that can form small, local areas of graphene. The thickness of SiC lost to Si sublimation is not completely countered by the thickness of the resulting graphene and so graphene-covered basins (GCBs) are formed. The GCBs are most likely nucleated at threading dislocations from the substrate. The GCB morphology exhibits ridges, similar to those found on continuous films. The GCBs expand through erosion of the surrounding SiC substrate walls, eventually coalescing into continuous films. The ratio of the Raman D and G peaks was used to estimate the crystallite length scale and it was found to be about 200 nm for small GCBs and > 1 m for continuous films.
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Authors: Charles R. Eddy, N.D. Bassim, Michael A. Mastro, R.L. Henry, Mark E. Twigg, Ronald T. Holm, James C. Culbertson, Philip G. Neudeck, J. Anthony Powell, Andrew J. Trunek
Abstract: Silicon carbide (SiC) has become the substrate of choice for III-N epilayers applied to electronic devices due to the lack of a native III-N substrate. This is particularly true for high power applications, since the thermal conductivity of the substrate enhances device performance. Although the GaN lattice match is slightly better for SiC than for sapphire, the dislocation densities that result are still very high (generally in the high 108 cm-2 range) and often deleterious to device performance. Screw-component dislocations are especially critical since they serve as leakage paths in vertically conducting III-N devices. In this paper efforts to reduce the extended defect density in III-N films grown on SiC will be reviewed. Details on recent efforts to use step-free SiC mesa surfaces arrayed on commercial 4HSiC substrates will then be highlighted showing dramatic reductions in extended defect densities and the virtual elimination of critical defects for vertically conducting devices. In these experiments, SiC surfaces that are homoepitaxially grown step-free or of very low step density have been used as growth templates for thin (<3 μm) GaN films deposited on a novel 1000 Å AlN nucleation layer characterized by a total dislocation density two orders of magnitude lower than the previous state-of-the-art, and with no evidence of screw-component dislocations.
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Authors: Joshua D. Caldwell, Travis J. Anderson, Karl D. Hobart, James C. Culbertson, Glenn G. Jernigan, Fritz J. Kub, Joseph L. Tedesco, Jennifer K. Hite, Michael A. Mastro, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Charles R. Eddy, Paul M. Campbell, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on the carbon-face of SiC has been shown to exhibit high carrier mobilities, in comparison to other growth techniques amenable to wafer-scale graphene fabrication. The transfer of large area (>mm2) graphene films to substrates amenable for specific applications is desirable. We demonstrate the dry transfer of EG from the C-face of 4H-SiC onto SiO2, GaN and Al2O3 substrates via two approaches using either 1) thermal release tape or 2) a spin-on, chemically-etchable dielectric. We will report on the impact that these transfer processes has upon the electrical properties of the transferred EG films.
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