Papers by Author: Jiří Man

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Authors: Jiří Man, Miroslav Valtr, Ivo Kuběna, Martin Petrenec, Karel Obrtlík, Jaroslav Polák
Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and focused ion beam technique (FIB) were adopted to study the early stages of surface relief evolution in 316L steel and polycrystalline copper fatigued with constant plastic strain amplitudes at different temperatures (316L steel at 93, 173 and 573 K; copper at 83, 173 and 295 K). Qualitative and quantitative data on the morphology and shape of persistent slip markings (PSMs), occurrence of extrusions and intrusions and the kinetics of extrusion growth are reported. They are discussed in relation with recent physically based theories of surface relief formation leading to fatigue crack initiation.
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Authors: Jaroslav Polák, Jiří Man, Karel Obrtlík
Abstract: The possibilities of atomic force microscopy in studying surface features and early fatigue damage in materials are reviewed. Examples of a true relief arising on the surface of cyclically strained materials as recorded by atomic force microscopy are given. Characteristic features of the surface relief are well-defined persistent slip markings consisting of extrusions and intrusions. The shape of extrusions and intrusions can be obtained by observation of metal surface and replicas and in combination with high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The growth of extrusions during fatigue life is reported for austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The experimental data are compared with models of the localized cyclic plastic straining and predictions of the fatigue crack nucleation models.
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Authors: Jaroslav Polák, Martin Petrenec, Jiří Man, Tomáš Kruml
Abstract: Smooth specimens made from austenitic-ferritic duplex steel were subjected to constant stress amplitude loading with positive mean stresses. Hysteresis loops were recorded during the fatigue life and plastic strain amplitude and cyclic creep rate were determined. Fatigue hardening/softening curves, cyclic creep curves and cyclic stress-strain curves for different positive mean stresses were evaluated. Typical dislocation structures developed in both phases of the duplex steel were identified using TEM, compared with the saturated plastic strain amplitude and correlated with the decrease of the cyclic creep rate during cycling and the slope of the cyclic stress-strain curve.
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Authors: Jaroslav Polák, Jiří Man
Abstract: Cyclic plastic straining in crystalline materials is localized to persistent slip bands (PSBs) and results in formation of persistent slip markings (PSMs) consisting of extrusions and intrusions. Intensive plastic strain in PSBs results in dislocation interactions and formation of point defects. The extended model based on point defect formation, migration and annihilation is presented describing surface relief formation in the form of extrusion-intrusion pairs. Point defect migration and resulting mass transfer is the principle source of cyclic slip irreversibility leading to crack-like defects - intrusions. Fatigue cracks start in the tip of sharp intrusions.
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Authors: Jaroslav Polák, Martin Petrenec, Jiří Man
Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel was cycled at a series of temperatures in the interval from 296 K to 113 K. Constant plastic strain amplitude loading at different levels of plastic strain amplitude and testing similar to multiple step test method were applied at different temperatures. The stress amplitude was continually recorded and selected hysteresis loops were stored and later analyzed using statistical theory of the hysteresis loop. Effective stress component and probability density function as a function of temperature were evaluated. The results were discussed in terms of the temperature dependence of the cyclic yield stress and its sources.
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Authors: Martin Petrenec, Karel Obrtlík, Jaroslav Polák, Jiří Man
Abstract: Dislocations structures were studied using transmission electron microscopy in specimens of cast polycrystalline nickel based superalloy Inconel 792-5A cyclically strained up to failure with constant total strain amplitudes at temperatures 23 and 700 °C. Spatial arrangement of dislocations in individual grains was determined using the technique of oriented foils. Planar dislocation arrangements in the form of bands parallel to the {111} planes were observed in specimens cycled at both temperatures. The bands showed up as thin slabs of high dislocation density cutting both the γ channels and γ´ precipitates. They correspond to areas of cyclic slip localization. Experimental results concerning the dislocation structure are used to discuss the effect of temperature on the cyclic stress-strain response and fatigue life.
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Authors: Martin Petrenec, Karel Obrtlík, Jaroslav Polák, Jiří Man
Abstract: Cyclic strain control tests have been performed on cylindrical specimens of cast polycrystalline Inconel 792-5A superalloy at 23, 500, 700 and 800 °C in laboratory atmosphere to study the effect of temperature on the fatigue behavior. Cyclic hardening-softening curves and fatigue life curves were measured. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the surface relief. Low amplitude straining was characterized by saturation of the stress amplitude. In room temperature high amplitude straining cyclic hardening was followed by marked saturation. Pronounced continuous hardening until failure was observed at 500 °C. Initial cyclic hardening was followed by softening at 800 °C. A systematic shift of the Manson-Coffin and of the Basquin curves to lower fatigue lives was found when temperature was increased. Fatigue cracks were observed to initiate from surface slip markings at all temperatures.
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Authors: Jaroslav Polák, Jiří Man, Tomáš Vystavěl, Lukáš Zouhar
Abstract: Recent observations relevant to the early stages of the fatigue damage of crystalline materials are reviewed. Experimental evidence on the localization of the cyclic plastic strain and on the surface relief formation in cyclic loading of 316L austenitic stainless steel is presented. The focused ion beam is used for exposing three-dimensional evidence of persistent slip markings (PSMs). PSMs consist of extrusions and parallel or alternating intrusions which develop during cyclic loading. Monte Carlo simulations of vacancy generation within persistent slip band (PSB) and their migration to the matrix where they annihilate on the edge dislocations are used to simulate the growth of extrusions and intrusions. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental data and discussed in terms vacancy models of fatigue crack initiation.
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Authors: Maxime Sauzay, Jiří Man
Abstract: This numerical study focuses on the recent observations of Man et al. [4] showing welloriented grains presenting no Persistent Slip Marking even if PSMs are observed in 86% of the surface grains in 316L austenitic stainless steel cycled at room temperature up to 60% of fatigue life. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) permits us to build Finite Element (FE) meshes of the observed aggregates and to assign to the modelled grains the crystallographic orientations measured by Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD). Then, 3D FE computations using crystalline elasticity allow the evaluation of mean grain stress tensors and resolved shear stresses. The results could explain qualitatively the anomalous behaviour of the studied well-oriented grains which is partly due to the particular orientations and shapes of the neighbour grains. This study highlights the influence of crystalline elasticity and neighbour grains in microplasticity and crack nucleation.
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Authors: Jiří Man, Anja Weidner, Petr Klapetek, Jaroslav Polák
Abstract: Flat specimen of 316L steel was cyclically pre-deformed with constant plastic strain amplitude to early stage of fatigue life relevant to the period of cyclic strain localization and fatigue crack initiation. To document slip activity and reversibility/irreversibility of persistent slip bands (PSBs) in situ experiments in the high-resolution SEMFEG under special imaging conditions were performed. The half-and full-cycle slip activity and distribution of plastic strain within PSBs in individual grains were investigated via slip steps generated in half-and full-cycle deformation after intermediate vibration polishing. After completion of in situ tests the surface topography in identical locations was quantitatively documented using atomic force microscopy (AFM).
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