Papers by Author: Koji Goto

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Authors: S. Shinzato, Takashi Nakamura, Koji Goto, Tadashi Kokubo
Abstract: Alumina powder containing δ , δ crystal phases (designated δAP) showed osteoconductivity. δAP was manufactured by fusing pulverized alumina powder and quenching it. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate osteoconductivity of δAP using rat tibiae. Alumina powder containing αcrystal phase (designated αAP) was used as a reference material. These two types of alumina powder were packed into the intramedullary canals of rat tibiae to evaluate osteoconductivity, as determined by an affinity index. Rats were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The affinity index, equal to the length of bone in direct contact with the powder surface expressed as a percentage of the total length of the powder surface, was calculated for each alumina powder at each interval. At 4 and 8 weeks, the affinity indices for δAP were significantly higher than those for αAP. For both δAP and αAP, there were no significant differences between the values for 4 and 8 weeks. This study revealed that the osteoconductivity of δAP was due to the alumina’s δcrystal phases. δAP shows promise as a basis for developing a osteoconductive biomaterial.
Authors: S. Shinzato, Takashi Nakamura, Koji Goto, Tadashi Kokubo
Abstract: A new bioactive bone cement (cGBC) consisting of crystallized MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass beads and high-molecular-weight polymethyl methacrylate (hPMMA) has been developed to overcome the degradation seen with a previously reported cement (GBC) consisting of MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass beads and hPMMA. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the degradation of cGBC using an in vivo aging test, and to compare the degradation of cGBC with that of GBC. Hardened rectangular specimens (20x4x3mm) were prepared from both cements. Their initial bending strengths were measured using the three-point bending method. GBC and cGBC specimens were then implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of rats, removed after 6 or 12 months, and tested for bending strength. The initial bending strengths (MPa) of GBC and cGBC were 141.9±1.8 and 144.4±2.4, respectively, while at 6 months they were 109.1±2.6 and 114.1±4.9, and at 12 months they were 109.1±3.2 and 113.1±3.3, respectively. Although the difference in initial bending strengths was not significant, the bending strength of cGBC was significantly higher than that of GBC at 6 and 12 months, indicating that cGBC is more resistant to cement degradation. The bending strengths of both GBC and cGBC decreased significantly from 0 to 6 months but did not change significantly thereafter. Thus, degradation of cGBC and GBC does not appear to continue after 6 months. We believe that cGBC and GBC are strong enough for use under weight-bearing conditions and that their mechanical strength (especially that of cGBC) is retained in vivo.
Authors: Koji Goto, Masami Hashimoto, Hiroaki Takadama, Jiro Tamura, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Shin Hasegawa, Keiichi Kawanabe, Tadashi Kokubo, Takashi Nakamura
Abstract: Three types of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based composite cements containing 40− 56 wt% micron-sized titania (titanium oxide) particles, designated ST2-40c, ST2-50c, and ST2-56c, were developed as bone substitutes for vertebroplasty, and evaluated for their mechanical, setting, and biological properties. In animal experiments, ST2-50c and ST2-56c were implanted into rat tibiae and solidified in situ. Their biological properties were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks after implantation. Compressive strength, bending strength, and bending modulus increased with increasing titania content. Peak temperature during the setting reaction decreased as the filler content increased. ST2-56c had direct contact with bone over larger areas than ST2-50c at 6 and 12 weeks. Data from the present study indicated that ST2-56c is a good candidate as a bone substitute for vertebroplasty.
Authors: Masami Hashimoto, Hiroaki Takadama, Mineo Mizuno, Tadashi Kokubo, Koji Goto, Takashi Nakamura
Abstract: Bioactive bone cement with mechanical properties higher than that of commercial polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement are strongly desired to be developed. In the present study, PMMA-based cement incorporated with nano-sized rutile particles was prepared. The PMMA-based cement (rutile content was 50 wt%) shows the compressive strength (136 MPa) higher than that of commercial PMMA bone cement (88 MPa). The hardened cement formed apatite on the surface in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. Therefore, this PMMA-based cement incorporated with rutile particles might be useful as cement for fixation of prostheses as well as self-setting bone substitutes, because of its high apatite forming ability and mechanical strength.
Authors: Koji Goto, Keiichi Kawanabe, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, R. Kowalski, Takashi Nakamura
Abstract: A composite bone cement designated G2B1 that contains β tricalcium phosphate particles was developed as a bone substitute for percutaneous transpedicular vertebroplasty. In this study, both G2B1 and commercial PMMA bone cement (CMW1) were implanted into proximal tibiae of rabbits with a metal frame fixed on it, and their bone-bonding strengths were evaluated at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after implantation using a detaching test. Some of the specimens were evaluated histologically using Giemsa surface staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the bone-bonding strength of G2B1 was significantly higher than that of CMW1 at each time point, and significantly increased from 4 weeks to 8 and 12 weeks, while it decreased significantly from 12 weeks to 16 weeks. Giemsa surface staining and SEM showed that G2B1 contacted bone directly without intervening soft tissue in the specimens at each time point, while there was always a soft tissue layer between CMW1 and bone. The results indicate that G2B1 has excellent bioactivity.
Authors: Tsuyoshi Aoki, Hidenori Hatta, Koji Goto, H. Fukuda
Authors: Y. Iwamoto, Koji Goto, T. Kuwajima, E. Fukuhara, Y. Suwa, Yoshiyuki Saito
Authors: Koji Goto, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Jiro Tamura, Keiichi Kawanabe, Shin Hasegawa, R. Kowalski, Takashi Nakamura
Abstract: A new composite bone cement designated ‘G2B1’ was developed for percutaneous transpedicular vertebroplasty. G2B1 contains beta tricalcium phosphate particles and methylmethacrylate –methylacrylate copolymer as the powder components, and methylmethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate as the liquid components. Osteoconductivity and histological changes with time were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, contact microradiography, and Giemsa surface staining 4, 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after implantation into rat tibiae. To evaluate osteoconductivity, affinity indices (%) were calculated. Scanning electron microscopy and contact microradiography revealed that bone contact with G2B1 was attained within 4 weeks (affinity index: 50.2 ± 11.8 at 4 weeks) and at most of the margin within 26 weeks (affinity index: 87.4 ± 7.2 at 26 weeks). Giemsa surface staining showed that there was almost no inflammatory reaction around the G2B1. These results indicate that G2B1 is a biocompatible and highly osteoconductive bone cement.
Authors: Koji Goto, L. Denk, Hidenori Hatta, Y. Kogo, S. Somiya
Authors: S. Shinzato, Takashi Nakamura, Koji Goto, Tadashi Kokubo
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