Papers by Author: L. Pentti Karjalainen

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Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, L. Pentti Karjalainen
Abstract: In recent past, a linear regression model to predict the activation energy (Qrex) and kinetics of static recrystallisation for hot-deformed austenite was developed based on stress relaxation test results of over 40 different carbon steels. The model is able to predict satisfactorily the static recrystallisation (SRX) kinetics of common carbon steel grades (including microalloyed steels) and also several special steel grades. In this study, the main effects of seven alloying elements, viz., C, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, Nb and V, on the activation energy of recrystallisation were further examined by using eight experimental steels based on an orthogonal Taguchi L8 matrix. All steels contained constant additions of B, Ti and Si. Even though originally intended for studies on phase transformation characteristics and hardenability under direct quenching conditions, the L8 matrix steels were suitably employed for further validation of the SRX regression model. In addition, the SRX characteristics and kinetics of a set of new steel compositions including C-Mn, C-Mn-Nb and C-Mn-Nb-Ti types were examined in the light of model equations, which further confirm the suitability of the regression model.
751
Authors: L. Pentti Karjalainen, Mahesh C. Somani, Atef S. Hamada
Abstract: Processing of a large number of novel steel types, such as DP, TRIP, CP and TWIP, and high-strength low-carbon bainitic and martensitic DQ-T steels, have been developed based on physical simulation and modelling studies. Among stainless steels, guidelines for processing of ultra-fine grained austenitic stainless steels have been created. Physical simulation has been used by employing a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator to reveal the phenomena occurring in the hot rolling stage (the flow resistance, recrystallization kinetics and microstructure evolution), and in the cooling stage (CCT diagrams) for carbon steels and in short-term annealing of cold rolled metastable austenitic steels. Connecting these data with microstructures examined in optical and electron microscopes and resultant mechanical properties have improved the understanding on complex phenomena occurring in the processing of these steels and the role of numerous process variables in the optimization of enhanced mechanical properties.
1002
Authors: Atef S. Hamada, L. Pentti Karjalainen, Mahesh C. Somani, R.M. Ramadan
Abstract: The hot deformation behaviour of two high-Mn (23-24 wt-%) TWIP steels containing 6 and 8 wt-% Al with the fully austenitic and duplex microstructures, respectively, has been investigated at temperatures of 900-1100°C. In addition, tensile properties were determined over the temperature range from -80 to 100°C. It was observed that in spite of the lower Al content, the austenitic steel possessed the hot deformation resistance about twice as high as that of the duplex steel. Whereas the flow stress curves of the austenitic steel exhibited work hardening followed by slight softening due to dynamic recrystallisation, the duplex steel showed the absence of work hardening and discontinuous yielding under similar conditions. Tensile tests at low temperatures revealed that the austenitic grade had a lower yield strength than that of the duplex grade, but much better ductility, the elongation increasing with decreasing temperature, contrary to that for the duplex steel. This can be attributed to the intense mechanical twinning in the austenitic steel, while in the duplex steel, twinning occurred in the ferrite only and the austenite showed dislocation glide.
217
Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, Henri Tervonen, L. Pentti Karjalainen, David A. Porter
Abstract: In this study, the constitutive flow behavior and static recrystallization characteristics of a Nb-microalloyed TWIP (Fe-20Mn-1.5Al-0.1Nb) steel under hot deformation conditions have been determined and results compared with those of Fe-25Mn-Al TWIP steels. Investigations using compression testing in a Gleeble simulator, including the double-hit technique, enabled the acquisition of flow stress and recrystallization data. These were analyzed to determine the powers of strain and strain rate as well as the activation energies of deformation and recrystallization (Qdef and Qrex). For given deformation and grain size parameters, the time for 50% recrystallization (t50) of the 0.1% Nb TWIP steel was significantly longer than for the Nb-free TWIP steel: it was comparable to that of Nb-microalloyed carbon steel. Qrex was higher than that of Type 304 stainless steel that has nevertheless much longer t50 times.
195
Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, L. Pentti Karjalainen, David A. Porter, R.D.K. Misra
Abstract: An experimental steel containing in weight % 0.2C-2.0Mn-1.5Si-0.6Cr has been laboratory hot rolled, direct quenched into the Ms - Mf range and partitioning annealed in order to explore new possibilities for making 1100 MPa yield strength structural steels with better combinations of strength, ductility and impact toughness. Two austenite states prior to quenching were investigated: recrystallized and strained. Gleeble simulations were used to determine appropriate cooling rates and cooling stop temperatures for obtaining martensite fractions in the range 70-90%. Desired martensite - austenite microstructures were achieved, and ductility and impact toughness were better than those obtained via the simple direct quenching of a lower carbon steel in the same strength class.
2824
Authors: J. Uusitalo, L. Pentti Karjalainen, Delphine Retraint, M. Palosaari
Abstract: Severely deformed surface layers have been created by ultrasonic attrition technique on four steel sheets to investigate their influence on fatigue behaviour. A low-carbon (0.05%) ferritic steel and a medium-carbon (0.47%) normalized ferritic-pearlitic steel were selected to study the effect of carbon content on fatigue properties of carbon steels. Two stainless steels, Type 316L and Type 301LN, were also tested to study the influence of stability of the austenitic structure. Microstructural features were characterized by hardness measurements, X-ray diffraction and optical and electron microscopy. Fatigue properties were determined in flexural bending in the range 104 to 107 cycles. Crack nucleation and propagation stages were followed. In the attrition treatment thin severely deformed surface layers were found to form. Highly increased hardness was measured in these layers, especially for stainless steels, where also strain-induced martensite was formed. Drastic improvement in fatigue resistance was observed for all steels due to the surface nanocrystallization treatment.
239
Authors: F. de las Cuevas, Mónica Reis, A. Ferraiuolo, G. Pratolongo, L. Pentti Karjalainen, Jon Alkorta, J. Gil Sevillano
Abstract: The grain size dependence of the tensile properties of a TWIP steel has been determined for a wide range of grain sizes obtained by grain growth after complete recrystallization of cold rolled material. The near-linear stress-strain behaviour typical of either TWIP steels or other materials that deform by twinning has been observed, the work hardening rate being larger for the smaller grain sizes. The Hall-Petch slope increases as a function of strain, from 350 MPa μm1/2 for the yield stress to 630 MPa μm1/2 for the maximum uniform strain in the tensile tests, ε  0.40. Profuse twinning is observed in deformed specimens by means of FIB-ISE.
147
Authors: L. Pentti Karjalainen, H. Kinnunen, D. Porter
477
Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, David A. Porter, L. Pentti Karjalainen, Pasi Suikkanen, R.D.K. Misra
Abstract: Based on the recent concept of quenching and partitioning (Q&P), a novel TMR-DQP (thermomechanical rolling followed by direct quenching and partitioning) processing route has been established for the development of ultra-high strength structural steels with yield strengths ≈1100 MPa combined with good uniform and total elongations and impact toughness. Suitable compositions were designed based on high silicon and/or aluminium contents with or without small additions of Nb, Mo or Ni. The DQP parameters were established with the aid of physical simulation on a Gleeble simulator. Finally, the TMR-DQP processing route was designed for trials on a laboratory rolling mill. Metallographic studies showed that the desired martensite-austenite microstructures were achieved thus providing the targeted mechanical properties. The advantage of strained austenite in refining the martensite packets/blocks was clearly evident. No adverse effect of prolonged partitioning simulating the coiling stage has been noticed suggesting new possibilities for strip and plate products. Promising results in respect of microstructures and mechanical properties indicate that there are possibilities for developing tough ductile structural steels through the TMR-DQP route.
1009
Authors: F. de las Cuevas, Mónica Reis, A. Ferraiuolo, G. Pratolongo, L. Pentti Karjalainen, V. García Navas, J. Gil Sevillano
Abstract: Hot rolled, laboratory-cast, TWIP steel samples (5.4 mm thick) of 22% Mn - 0.6% C (in mass-%) were cold rolled to different reductions (from 40 % to 70 %) and subsequently isothermally annealed for various times at temperatures ranging from 450º C to 1100º C. The evolution of recrystallization and grain growth was followed by control of the softening kinetics complemented by metallographic, OIM and microtexture observations. A map of the recovery, recrystallization and grain growth in the temperature-time space was obtained. In all instances, the grain size at the end of recrystallization was very fine, D ≤ 2 µm and larger grain sizes were the result of grain growth. A range of grain sizes 2 µm ≤ D ≤ 50 µm was covered by the grain growth experiments. A phenomenological grain growth equation that is useful for the annealing control of this steel was derived from the measurements.
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