Papers by Author: Maria Clara Cramez

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Authors: Luis Costa, Maria Clara Cramez, A.J. Pontes
Abstract: Warpage and poor dimensional stability of rotomoulded products are two of the main obstacles to the use of this technique in the production of engineering parts. The knowledge of the effect of the processing conditions on the shrinkage of rotomoulded parts will allow overcoming some of the restrictions of this process. In the present work the influence of the processing conditions on the development of shrinkage and warpage of rotomoulded parts was studied. The moulding of the parts was performed using a rotational moulding machine build at the University of Minho. The shrinkage and the warpage of the moulded parts were assessed using 3D MMC (3D measuring Machine Control) equipment, and understanding the microstructural development.
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Authors: Júlio C. Viana, João F. Mano, Zlatan Z. Denchev, Maria Jovita Oliveira, Maria Clara Cramez
Abstract: In this work, the structural evolution and damage of PET during stretching is assessed by wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering (respectively, WAXS and SAXS) experiments in specimens pre-deformed at different strain levels (ex-situ characterization). Injection moulded PET rectangular tensile specimens were stretched (at 2 mm/min) into the plastic domain in a universal test machine at different strain levels at room temperature. The structure of the central zone of the deformed specimens was then characterized by WAXS and SAXS experiments using an X-ray synchrotron source. PET was initially (before stretching) amorphous. A strong molecular orientation in the stretching direction is quickly developed for the initial plastic deformation levels, evidenced by strong equatorial WAXS reflections. This orientation rapidly levels off, remaining constant during further stretching. The WAXS patterns are accompanied with no reflections on SAXS, evidencing a local ordering phenomenon, typical of nematic liquid-crystalline structures. The SAXS patterns evidence the occurrence of some voiding in the cold drawing regime just after yielding. These anisotropic voids are oriented perpendicular to the stretching direction, as in a craze-like structure. The void size drastically increases at the onset of the strong strain hardening behaviour.
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