Papers by Author: Pavel Cizek

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Authors: Hossein Beladi, Pavel Cizek, Adam S. Taylor, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: Two distinct substructures were produced in a Ni-30Fe austenitic model alloy by different thermomechanical processing routes. The first substructure largely displayed organized, banded subgrain arrangements with alternating misorientations, resulting from the deformation at a strain just before the initiation of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). By contrast, the second substructure was more random in character and exhibited complex subgrain/cell arrangements characterized by local accumulation of misorientations, formed through DRX. During the post-deformation annealing, the latter substructure revealed a rapid disintegration of dislocation boundaries leading to the formation of dislocation-free grains within a short holding time, though the former largely preserved its characteristics till becoming replaced by growing statically recrystallized grains.
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Authors: Masahiro Kubota, Pavel Cizek
Abstract: Air-atomised pure aluminium powder with additions of 10 at.% of AgO, PtO2 or PdO was mechanically alloyed (MAed) by using a vibrational ball mill, and MAed powders were consolidated into bulk materials by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) process. Mechano-chemical reactions among pure Al, precious metal oxide and stearic acid, added as a process control agent, during the mechanical alloying (MA) process and subsequent heat treatments were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of MAed powders obtained under various heat treatment conditions and those of the SPS materials were evaluated by hardness tests. Mechano-chemical reactions occurred in Al/precious metal oxide composite powders during 36 ks of the MA process to form AlAg2, Pt and Al3Pd2 for the Al-AgO, Al-PtO2 and Al-PdO systems, respectively. Further solid-state reactions in MAed powders have been observed after heating at 373 K to 873 K for 7.2 ks. The hardness of MAed powders initially increased significantly after heating at 373 K and then generally decreased with increasing heating temperatures. The full density was obtained for the SPS materials under the conditions of an applied pressure of 49 MPa at 873 K for 3.6 ks. All the SPS materials exhibited hardness values of over 200 HV in the as-fabricated state.
1824
Authors: Pavel Cizek
Abstract: The microstructure evolution and softening processes occurring in 22Cr-19Ni-3Mo austenitic and 21Cr-10Ni-3Mo duplex stainless steels deformed in torsion at 900 and 1200 °C were studied in the present work. Austenite was observed to soften in both steels via dynamic recovery (DRV) and dynamic recrystallisation (DRX) for the low and high deformation temperatures, respectively. At 900 °C, an “organised”, self-screening austenite deformation substructure largely comprising microbands, locally accompanied by micro-shear bands, was formed. By contrast, a “random”, accommodating austenite deformation substructure composed of equiaxed subgrains formed at 1200 °C. In the single-phase steel, DRX of austenite largely occurred through strain-induced grain boundary migration accompanied by (multiple) twinning. In the duplex steel, this softening mechanism was complemented by the formation of DRX grains through subgrain growth in the austenite/ferrite interface regions and by large-scale subgrain coalescence. At 900 °C, the duplex steel displayed limited stress-assisted phase transformations between austenite and ferrite, characterised by the dissolution of the primary austenite, formation of Widmanstätten secondary austenite and gradual globularisation of the transformed regions with strain. The softening process within ferrite was classified as “extended DRV”, characterised by a continuous increase in misorientations across the sub-boundaries with strain, for both deformation temperatures.
66
Authors: Peter D. Hodgson, Pavel Cizek, Hossein Beladi, A.S. Taylor
Abstract: The current work investigates the microstructure evolution and softening processes that take place during annealing of an austenitic Ni-30Fe model alloy subjected to hot deformation in the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) regime. The substructure of the deformed matrix grains largely comprised organized microband arrays, though that of the DRX grains consisted of more random, complex subgrain/cell arrangements. This substructure disparity was also reflected by the distinct difference in the mechanism of post-deformation softening taking place during annealing of the deformed matrix and DRX grains. In the former, the recrystallization process took place through nucleation and growth of new grains fully replacing the deformed structure, as expected for the classical static recrystallization (SRX). The corresponding texture was essentially random, in contrast to that of the DRX grains dominated by low Taylor factor components. The microbands originally present within the deformed matrix grains displayed some tendency to disintegrate during annealing, nonetheless, they remained largely preserved even at prolonged holding times. During annealing of the fully DRX microstructure, a novel softening mechanism was revealed. The initial post-dynamic softening stage involved rapid growth of the dynamically formed nuclei and migration of the mobile boundaries in correspondence with the well-established metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) mechanism. However, in contrast to the deformed matrix, SRX was not observed and the sub-boundaries within DRX grains rapidly disintegrated through dislocation climb and dislocation annihilation, which led to the formation of dislocation-free grains already at short holding times. Consequently, the DRX texture initially became slightly weakened and then remained largely preserved throughout the annealing process.
2134
Authors: Peter D. Hodgson, Pavel Cizek, Hossein Beladi
Abstract: The present work provides a summary of the recent findings obtained from the experimental investigation of the grain structure, crystallographic texture and dislocation substructure evolution in an austenitic Ni-30%Fe model alloy during dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and post-dynamic annealing. It has been found that the DRX texture characteristics become increasingly dominated by the low Taylor factor grains during DRX development, which presumably results from the preferred nucleation and lower consumption rates of these grains. The substructure of DRX grains is random in character and displays complex, hierarchical subgrain/cell arrangements characterized by accumulation of misorientations across significant distances. The stored energy within DRX grains appears to be principally consistent with the corresponding Taylor factor values. The changes observed within the fully dynamically recrystallized microstructure during post-dynamic annealing have provided a basis to suggest a novel mechanism of metadynamic softening for the current experimental conditions. It is proposed that the initial softening stage involves rapid growth of the dynamically formed nuclei and migration of the mobile boundaries. The sub-boundaries within DRX grains progressively disintegrate through dislocation climb and dislocation annihilation, which ultimately leads to the formation of dislocation-free grains, and the grain boundary migration gradually becomes slower. As a result, the DRX texture largely remains preserved throughout the annealing process.
259
Authors: Pavel Cizek, Hossein Beladi, Adam S. Taylor, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: The present work examines the microstructure and texture evolution in a Ni-30wt.%Fe austenitic model alloy deformed in torsion at 1000 °C, with a particular emphasis on the orientation dependence of the substructure characteristics within the deformed original grains. Texture of these grains was principally consistent with that expected for simple shear and comprised the main A, B and C components. The deformation substructure within the main texture component grains was characterised by “organised” arrays of parallel microbands with systematically alternating misorientations, locally accompanied by micro-shear bands within the C grains. With increasing strain, the mean subgrain size gradually decreased and the mean misorientation angle concurrently increased towards the saturation. The stored deformation energy within the main texture component grains was principally consistent with the respective Taylor factor values. The microband boundaries corresponded to the expected single slip {111} plane for the A oriented grains while these boundaries for the C oriented grains represented a variety of planes even for a single grain.
54
Authors: Pavel Cizek, Hossein Beladi, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: The substructure and crystallographic texture characteristics of both the deformed matrix and dynamically recrystallized (DRX) grains were investigated in a Ni-30%Fe austenitic model alloy subjected to hot torsion. Deformation was performed at a temperature of 1000°C using strain rates of 1, 0.1 and 0.01 s-1, which produced a range of DRX grain sizes. Electron back-scattered diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed in the investigation. Both the deformed matrix and DRX grains revealed the texture components expected for simple shear deformation by crystallographic slip. The texture of DRX grains was dominated by low Taylor factor components as a result of their lower consumption rate during growth of these grains. There was a marked difference in the substructure characteristics between the deformed matrix and DRX grains regardless of the grain size and orientation. The deformed matrix substructure was largely characterized by organized, banded subgrain arrangements with alternating misorientations. By contrast, the substructure of DRX grains was generally more random in character and displayed complex, more equiaxed subgrain/cell arrangements characterized by local accumulation of misorientations. Based on the experimental observations, a mechanism of the distinct substructure development within DRX grains has been proposed.
180
Authors: Hossein Beladi, Pavel Cizek, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: An austenitic Ni-30%Fe model alloy was employed to investigate the texture and substructure development within the deformed matrix and dynamically recrystallized (DRX) grains during hot torsion deformation. Both the deformed matrix and DRX grains predominantly displayed the crystallographic texture components expected for simple shear deformation. The characteristics of the deformed matrix texture evolution during deformation largely resulted from the preferred consumption of high Taylor factor components by new recrystallized grains. Likewise, the comparatively weaker crystallographic texture of DRX grains became increasingly dominated by low Taylor factor components as a result of their easier nucleation and lower consumption rate during DRX. There was a significant difference in the substructure formation mechanism between the deformed matrix and DRX grains for a given texture component. The deformed matrix substructure was largely characterized by “organized”, banded subgrain arrangements with alternating misorientations, while the substructure of DRX grains was more “random” in character and displayed complex, more equiaxed subgrain/cell arrangements characterized by a local accumulation of misorientations. Substructure characteristics of individual orientation components were principally consistent with the corresponding Taylor factor values.
2835
Authors: Hossein Beladi, Pavel Cizek, Peter D. Hodgson
Abstract: The texture and substructure development during post-dynamic annealing of an austenitic Ni-30%Fe model alloy after complete dynamic recrystallization was investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A novel mechanism of metadynamic softening is proposed based on the experimental investigation of the grain structure, crystallographic texture and dislocation substructure evolution. The initial softening stage involved rapid growth of the dynamically formed nuclei and migration of the mobile boundaries. The subboundaries within DRX grains progressively disintegrated through dislocation climb and dislocation annihilation, which ultimately led to the formation of dislocation-free grains, while the grain boundary migration gradually became slower. As a result, the DRX texture was largely preserved throughout the annealing process.
1279
Authors: Peter D. Hodgson, Pavel Cizek, A.S. Taylor, Hossein Beladi
Abstract: The current work has investigated the texture development in an austenitic Ni-30Fe model alloy during deformation within the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) regime and after post-deformation annealing. Both the deformed matrix and DRX texture displayed the expected FCC shear components, the latter being dominated by the low Taylor factor grains, which was presumably caused by their lower consumption rate during DRX. The deformed matrix grains were largely characterized by organized, microband structures, while the DRX grains showed more random, complex subgrains/cell arrangements. The latter substructure type proved to be significantly less stable during post-deformation annealing. The recrystallization of the deformed matrix occurred through nucleation and growth of new grains fully replacing the deformed structure, as expected for the classical static recrystallization (SRX). Unlike the DRX grains, the SRX texture was essentially random. By contrast, a novel softening mechanism was revealed during annealing of the fully DRX microstructure. The initial post-dynamic softening stage involved rapid growth of the dynamically formed nuclei and migration of the mobile boundaries in line with the well-established metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) mechanism, which weakened the starting DRX texture. However, in parallel, the sub-boundaries within the deformed DRX grains progressively disintegrated through dislocation climb and dislocation annihilation, which ultimately led to the formation of dislocation-free grains. Consequently, the weakened DRX texture largely remained preserved throughout the annealing process.
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