Papers by Author: Rachael L. Myers-Ward

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Authors: Virginia D. Wheeler, Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, S. Chung, Yoosuf N. Picard, Marek Skowronski, Robert E. Stahlbush, Nadeemullah A. Mahadik, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: The effectiveness of an in-situ growth interrupt in nitrogen doped 8° off-cut epilayers was investigated using ultraviolet photoluminescence imaging. Low-doped n-type epilayers (<1016 cm-3) exhibited an abrupt increase in BPD to TED conversion at the growth interrupt and achieved 96-99% conversion overall (< 10 BPDs/cm-2), while high-doped epilayers had minimal conversion at the interrupt (< 1%) and overall (< 30%). This large discrepancy suggests nitrogen prohibits or alters the conversion mechanism at the growth interrupt. Therefore, a novel SEM technique was developed to "freeze-in" the interface morphology and help elucidate the conversion mechanism. Preliminary results suggest that preferential etching at the point of BPD intersection with the surface is greatly reduced in highly doped layers, which inhibits the conversion mechanism.
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Authors: Travis J. Anderson, Karl D. Hobart, Luke O. Nyakiti, Virginia D. Wheeler, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Joshua D. Caldwell, Francisco J. Bezares, D. Kurt Gaskill, Charles R. Eddy, Francis J. Kub, Glenn G. Jernigan, M.J. Tadjer, Eugene A. Imhoff
Abstract: Graphene, a 2D material, has motivated significant research in the study of its in-plane charge carrier transport in order to understand and exploit its unique physical and electrical properties. The vertical graphene-semiconductor system, however, also presents opportunities for unique devices, yet there have been few attempts to understand the properties of carrier transport through the graphene sheet into an underlying substrate. In this work, we investigate the epitaxial graphene/4H-SiC system, studying both p and n-type SiC substrates with varying doping levels in order to better understand this vertical heterojunction.
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Authors: Kok Keong Lew, Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Ronald T. Holm, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Hydrogen etching of 4H-SiC has been performed in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor to reduce surface damage and to create a bilayer-stepped surface morphology, optimal for initiation of growth on 4H-SiC substrates offcut 4° and 8° towards the <11-20> direction. To understand how step bunching evolves during the ramp to growth temperature, samples were etched ending at temperatures from 1400 to 1580°C under 0, 2 or 10 sccm of propane (C3H8) addition to hydrogen. Initial exploratory growth of 5 μm thick epilayers on the 4° etched surfaces are also discussed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Nomarski microscopy were employed to investigate changes in the surface morphology. The 8° substrates subjected to H2-C3H8 etching up to growth temperature routinely exhibited bilayer steps. However, when the 4° substrates were etched with a 10 sccm C3H8 flow, considerable step bunching was observed. At 1450°C, with a 10 sccm of C3H8 flow (partial pressure is 1.25x10-5 bar), step bunching started with the formation of ribbon-like steps. Progression to higher temperature etches have shown the coalescence of the ribbons into larger macro-steps up to 30 nm in height. Etching 4° substrates under 2 sccm of C3H8 (partial pressure is 2.5x10-6 bar) or in pure H2 up to 1500°C results in minimal step bunching.
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Authors: Robert E. Stahlbush, Brenda L. VanMil, Kendrick X. Liu, Kok Keong Lew, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, D. Kurt Gaskill, Charles R. Eddy, X. Zhang, Marek Skowronski
Abstract: The evolution of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) in 4H-SiC epitaxy during its growth is investigated by using two types of interrupted growth in conjunction with ultraviolet photoluminescence (UVPL) imaging of the dislocations. For the first, each epitaxial growth was stopped after 10-20 μm and a UVPL map was collected. For the second, changing the gas flow interrupted the growth and the BPDs were imaged at the end. The first sequence made it possible to track the formation of half-loop arrays and show that they arise from BPDs that glide perpendicular to the offcut direction. For both types, each interruption causes between 30 – 50% of the BPDs to be converted to threading edge dislocations (TEDs). This result suggests that using interrupted growth may be an alternate method to producing epitaxial layers with low BPD concentration.
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Authors: Brenda L. VanMil, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Joseph L. Tedesco, Charles R. Eddy, Glenn G. Jernigan, James C. Culbertson, Paul M. Campbell, J.M. McCrate, S.A. Kitt, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Graphene layers were created on both C and Si faces of semi-insulating, on-axis, 4H- and 6H-SiC substrates. The process was performed under high vacuum (<10-4 mbar) in a commercial chemical vapor deposition SiC reactor. A method for H2 etching the on-axis substrates was developed to produce surface steps with heights of 0.5 nm on the Si-face and 1.0 to 1.5 nm on the C-face for each polytype. A process was developed to form graphene on the substrates immediately after H2 etching and Raman spectroscopy of these samples confirmed the formation of graphene. The morphology of the graphene is described. For both faces, the underlying substrate morphology was significantly modified during graphene formation; surface steps were up to 15 nm high and the uni-form step morphology was sometimes lost. Mobilities and sheet carrier concentrations derived from Hall Effect measurements on large area (16 mm square) and small area (2 and 10 m square) samples are presented and shown to compare favorably to recent reports.
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Authors: Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Luke O. Nyakiti, Jennifer K. Hite, Orest J. Glembocki, Francisco J. Bezares, Joshua D. Caldwell, Eugene A. Imhoff, Karl D. Hobart, James C. Culbertson, Yoosuf N. Picard, Virginia D. Wheeler, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: Homo- and heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC layers were grown on 4H-SiC step-free mesas. The yields of smooth, defect-free mesas were ~ 17% for both intentionally and unintentionally doped films, while those with screw dislocations and multiple stepped surfaces were ~ 22%. The electronic and structural properties of the mesas were found on a micrometer-sized length scale using µ-PL and µ-Raman, respectively. 3C-SiC mesas were found to have complete 3C-SiC coverage with some of the mesas having electronic defects, while other mesas were found to be defect-free.
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Authors: Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Y. Shishkin, Olof Kordina, I. Haselbarth, Stephen E. Saddow
Abstract: A 4H-SiC epitaxial growth process has been developed in a horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor using a standard chemistry of silane-propane-hydrogen, producing repeatable growth rates up to 32 μm/h. The growth rate was studied as a function of pressure, silane flow rate, and growth time. The structural quality of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction. A 65 μm thick epitaxial layer was grown at the 32 μm/h rate, resulting in a smooth, specular film morphology with occasional carrot-like and triangular defects. The film proved to be of high structural quality with an X-ray rocking curve FWHM value of the (0004) peak of 11 arcseconds.
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Authors: V. Karthik Nagareddy, Sandra C. Hernández, Virginia D. Wheeler, Luke O. Nyakiti, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Charles R. Eddy, Jonathan P. Goss, Nicolas G. Wright, Scott G. Walton, D. Kurt Gaskill, Alton B. Horsfall
Abstract: The electrical characteristics of oxygen functionalized epitaxial graphene and Ti/Au metal contact interfaces were systematically investigated as a function of temperature. As the temperature was increased from 300 K to 673 K, the contact resistance and the sheet resistance decreased by 75% and 33%, respectively. The resistance of oxygen functionalized graphene vs temperature exhibited Arrhenius type behavior with activation energy of 38 meV. The results showed no hysteresis effects in resistance measurements over the temperatures studied here, suggesting the contact interfaces remain stable at high temperatures.
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Authors: T.J. Fawcett, J.T. Wolan, Rachael L. Myers-Ward, J. Walker, Stephen E. Saddow
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Authors: Rachael L. Myers-Ward, Kok Keong Lew, Brenda L. VanMil, Robert E. Stahlbush, Kendrick X. Liu, Joshua D. Caldwell, Paul B. Klein, Ping Wu, Mohammad Fatemi, Charles R. Eddy, D. Kurt Gaskill
Abstract: X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curves were mapped across 4H-SiC, 3-inch, 8° off-cut substrates prior to and after epitaxial growth, where a pattern of slightly higher defectivity region was clearly seen. This same pattern was apparent in both cross-polarization images of the epiwafers and microwave photoconductivity decay (μ-PCD) lifetime maps of the epilayers, where the latter shows the lifetime in the high defectivity regions had drastically decreased. Within the short lifetime regions, electron trap concentrations were similar to that as in the long lifetime regions as determined by deep level transient spectroscopy; however, the extended defect density was significantly higher. Consequently, high spatial resolution XRD can be a valuable tool in preselecting substrates for epitaxial growth to produce low defect density material with long injected carrier lifetimes.
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