Papers by Author: Yuuki Sato

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Authors: Kenji Sakai, Yang Guan, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: To design an electromagnetic wave absorber with good absorption properties at frequencies above 1 GHz, the frequency dependences of the relative complex permeability μr*, the relative complex permittivity εr*, and return loss were investigated for the composite made of both sendust (an alloy of Al 5%, Si 10%, and Fe 85%) and aluminum particles dispersed in polystyrene resin. It was found that the frequency dependence of μr* for this composite can be changed by adjusting the particle size of aluminum and the volume mixture ratio of sendust and aluminum. Therefore, a flexible design of an absorber with good absorption characteristics was proposed based on the ability to control μr*. The composite made of both sendust and aluminum was found to exhibit a return loss of less than −20 dB in the frequency range of not only several GHz but also around 20 GHz if appropriate volume mixture ratio and particle size were selected.
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Authors: Kenji Sakai, Yang Guan, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: In order to design a ferrite absorber that can be used at frequencies of several GHz, the frequency dependences of the relative complex permeability μr*, the relative complex permittivity εr*, and return loss were investigated for a composite made of Ni-Zn ferrite and SiO2. When ferrite particles were dispersed and isolated in an SiO2 medium, the frequency dependence of μr* was different from that for a composite made of SiO2 particles dispersed and isolated in the ferrite medium. Moreover, when ferrite particles were isolated and a suitable mixture ratio of ferrite and SiO2 was selected, the return loss was less than −20 dB at frequencies of several GHz. The dispersion states of ferrite and SiO2 particles are thus important factors to design an absorber, and improvement in the absorption characteristics of the ferrite tile which is used as a practical absorber could be achieved using a composite made of Ni-Zn ferrite particles dispersed and isolated in an SiO2 medium.
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Authors: Ai Fukumori, Masayuki Takada, Yuji Akiyama, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: With the goal of fabricating low-breakdown-voltage varistors, the effect of adding Ba to ZnO varistors on the ZnO grain size was investigated. Grain growth of ZnO could be markedly promoted by adding both Ba and Bi. The maximum grain size was approximately 150 μm and the minimum varistor voltage was approximately 12 V/mm. However, it had relatively poor tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation. It is speculated that when adding both Ba and Bi to a Mn–Co-added ZnO varistor, it is necessary to form the molten phases of Ba and Bi to promote grain growth of ZnO. It is also conjectured that the growth of ZnO grains is not promoted when Ba and Bi do not coexist in the molten phase because Ba forms compounds with Mn independently with the addition of small amounts of Bi.
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Authors: Takayuki Watanabe, Yosuke Tokoro, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: The effects of adding Sb to a BiMnCoSiCrNiYZr-added ZnO varistor (with the same composition as a commercial varistor) on the varistor voltage, leakage current, and resistance to electrical degradation were investigated. Bi is incorporated in spinel particles, and δ-Bi2O3 eventually disappears with the addition of small amounts of Bi, especially as the amount of Sb2O3 added increased. Reduction in both the nonlinearity index and the amount of δ-Bi2O3 for small amounts of added Bi with the addition of more than approximately 1.25 mol% Sb2O3 demonstrates that Sb inhibits Bi2O3 from forming deep interfacial impurity levels at the grain boundaries. The sample containing 1.2 mol% Bi2O3, 1.0 mol% ZrO2, 1.0 mol% Y2O3, and 1.5 mol% Sb2O3 added exhibits a high varistor voltage (approximately 630 V/mm), high resistance to electrical degradation and low leakage current.
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Authors: Ai Fukumori, Takayuki Watanabe, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: With the goal of fabricating varistors with low breakdown voltages (varistor voltages), the effect of adding Sb to Bi-Co-Mn-Ba-added ZnO varistors on the ZnO grain size was investigated. To obtain a uniform ZnO grain size without reducing the grain size, a small amount (e.g., 0.01 mol%) of Sb was added as an additive. This addition suppresses the variation in the ZnO grain size without reducing the grain size. It also improved the resistance to electrical degradation because compounds of Ba and Mn were not formed.
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Authors: Kenji Sakai, Yoichi Wada, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: The effects of the particle size of sendust, which is an alloy of Al 5%, Si 10%, and Fe 85%, on the absorption characteristics of composite electromagnetic wave absorbers made of polystyrene resin and sendust were investigated in the frequency range from 1 to 40 GHz. The size of sendust particles was varied between approximately 5 and 20 m. A metal-backed single-layer absorber made of 20 m sendust particles absorbed more than 99% of electromagnetic wave power at frequencies above 20 GHz. Meanwhile, a composite made of 5 m particles exhibited a return loss of less than −20 dB in the frequency range of not only several GHz but also above 30 GHz. In addition, the relative complex permeability r* was shown to be controlled by adjusting the particle size of sendust, and an electromagnetic wave absorber with a flexible design was proposed.
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Authors: Atsuko Kubota, Ai Fukumori, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: With the goal of fabricating varistors with low varistor voltages, we investigated the effects of adding Ba and Si to BiCoMn-added ZnO varistors on the varistor voltage and the resistance to electrical degradation. Ba2Mn3O8, which reduces the resistance to electrical degradation, was not formed at the grain boundary when Si was added. The resistance to electrical degradation was considerably improved by adding 0.10.15 mol% Si relative to samples to which small amounts of Sb had been added. The varistor voltage increased monotonically with increasing amount of added Si; it was approximately 36 V/mm for 0.1 mol% Si.
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Authors: Takayuki Watanabe, Ai Fukumori, Yuji Akiyamna, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: The effect of simultaneously adding Zr and Y to Bi–Mn–Co–Sb–Si–Cr–Ni-added ZnO varistors (having the same composition as a commercial varistor) on the varistor voltage, leakage current, and resistance to electrical degradation were investigated. Varistor voltage increased with increasing amount of Y for addition of 0–2 mol % Zr. On the other hand, the nonlinear coefficient α prior to electrical degradation changed very little on the addition of both Y and Zr. With the addition of approximately 1 mol% Zr, the leakage current decreased with increasing amount of Y added. A ZnO varistor with a varistor voltage of approximately 600 V/m, a low leakage current, and excellent resistance to electrical degradation was fabricated by adding approximately 2 mol% Y and approximately 1 mol% Zr.
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Authors: Masayuki Takada, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: The effects of thermal annealing on the electrical degradation of Sb2O3-Bi-Mn-Co-doped ZnO varistors were investigated. For samples with 0.04 mol% Sb2O3 or more, the nonlinearity index  of the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics after electrical degradation increased upon annealing. More-over, the value of  after electrical degradation was proportional to the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray diffraction peak for Zn2.33Sb0.67O4-type spinel particles under various annealing conditions. The added Sb2O3 did not dissolve in the ZnO grains but became segregated at grain boundaries. Therefore, it is speculated that the increase in the FWHM of the spinel particles is due to an increase in the numbers of fine spinel particles at grain boundaries and triple points during annealing. Furthermore, it is suggested that the improvement in the electrical degradation upon annealing is due to a decrease in the mobility of oxide ions or Zn2+ ions owing to their being blocked by uniformly distributed fine spinel particles at grain boundaries.
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Authors: Yuji Akiyama, Masayuki Takada, Ai Fukumori, Yuuki Sato, Shinzo Yoshikado
Abstract: ZnO varistors of the excellent tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation were made by adding Bi2O3-MnO2-Co3O4-Cr2O3-SiO2-Sb2O3-NiO in ZnO. The tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation were evaluated by changing amount of ZrO2-additive. The evaluation methods are voltage-current characteristics, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy. Monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 and the compounds originated in Zr were observed at both grain boundaries and triple points. Moreover, the compounds originated in both Zr and Sb improved the tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation. On the other hand, especially monoclinic ZrO2 deteriorated the tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation. It is one key factor of the improvements of the tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation that the mobility of oxide ions or interstitial Zn2+ ions was hindered by forming the compounds contained Zr, Sb, Si, and, Bi atoms.
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