Papers by Author: Zulkafli Bin Hassan

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Authors: Hayder A. Abdul Bari, Emma Suali, Zulkafli Bin Hassan
Abstract: Glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether was used as investigated anionic surfactants in this experimental work. A built up rig with ratio of pipe length to diameter (L/D) is equal to 59 was used to achieve the purpose of this work which is to investigate the drag reduction in turbulent flow with different flow rates and concentration of additive. In the present study, the concentrations (ppm) of additive were analyzed starting from 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600, respectively. The flow rates (Re) of the solution were from 11235, 22470, 33705, 44940, 56175, 67410 and 78645, respectively. It was found that glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether is capable to reduce the drag less than 10 %. The highest drag reduction is 8 % was achieved in 600 ppm of solution for turbulent flow with Re within the range 44940 to 56175. The results of experimental work shows that this anionic surfactant perform as a poor drag reducing agent due to its drag reduction values increases only 1 to 3 % even though the concentration of solution was added about 100 ppm. This occurred probably because of the formation of micelle in the solution which is not in a fully threadlike forms and the micelle networks are not fully established in solution to surpassed the degree of turbulent flow.
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Authors: Hayder A. Abdulbari, Rosli Bin Mohd Yunus, Zulkafli Bin Hassan, Wafaa Kamil Mahmood, C Hooi
Abstract: The paper is concerned with an experimental investigation of the drag reduction in turbulent channel flow over the mechanical chain. A circulating loop for the fluid flow with 0.0381 inside diameter of pipe is set up. The testing length of the system is 1.5m.Wall shear stress reduction performance has been investigated experimentally for various design geometry surfaces including a replica of bent consisting of stainless steel model scales. Attempts to optimize the net drag reduction by varying the design geometry and alignment are also discussed. The study indicated that the mechanical chain taken in water flow is capable to decrease the friction drag of a turbulent flow up to 40%. The maximum percentage was achieved in 39.37L/D at RE equal to 56733. The results show that a substantial drag reduction can be achieved by this mechanical chain in aqueous media.
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