Papers by Keyword: Annealing

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Authors: Johannes Will, Alexander Gröschel, Christoph Bergmann, Andreas Magerl
Abstract: The measurement of Pendellösungs oscillations was used to observe the time dependent nucleation of oxygen in a Czochralski grown single crystal at 750°C. It is shown, that the theoretical approach of the statistical dynamical theory describes the data well. Within the framework of this theory it is possible to determine the static Debye-Waller-factor as a function of the annealing time by evaluating the mean value of the Bragg intensity and the period length. The temperature influence on the Pendellösungs distance was corrected for by measurement of a Float-zone sample at the same temperature.
Authors: Hang Sheng Yang, Norihiko Kurebayashi, Toyonobu Yoshida
Abstract: In situ sulphur doping of cubic boron nitride (cBN) films was investigated by adding H2S into a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. It was found that the nucleation of cBN was suppressed severely with a very low H2S concentration, while cBN could be grown continuously even at a H2S concentration as high as that of the boron source after its nucleation. Accordingly, S was incorporated into cBN films meanwhile keeping the cubic phase concentration as high as 95%. And a rectification ratio of approximately 10 5 was observed at room temperature for heterojunction diodes prepared by depositing S-doped cBN films on p-type silicon substrates, which suggests the possibility of an n-type-like doping. Moreover, 1500K post annealing of cBN films in H2 atmosphere was found to be able to release the residual compressive stress evidently. Thus, film adhesion strength increased markedly, and cBN films reached a thickness over 200 nm without peeling off from silicon and quartz substrates in air after 9 months.
Authors: Mihai Lazar, Christophe Raynaud, Dominique Planson, Marie Laure Locatelli, K. Isoird, Laurent Ottaviani, Jean-Pierre Chante, Roberta Nipoti, Antonella Poggi, G.C. Cardinali
Authors: Marina V. Polonik, Egor E. Rogachev
Abstract: Within the linear theory of elastic-plastic body we carried out the modeling of technological process of annealing: slow heating stage, the holding stage under constant temperature and slow cooling step. Holding stage is simulated with consideration of creeping properties of materials. Boundary value problems are examined and patterns responsible for the removal of residual stresses at temperature influence are described. An analytical solution is found. It is proved that the holding stage is essential for describing the process of residual stress relief.
Authors: Shu Xun Chen
Abstract: A design synthesis technique based on sensitivity for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) proposed. This new technique can be called Sensitivity-Based Direct Solution Algorithm (DSA) of design synthesis for MEMS with expected performance. Design synthesis with expected performance is regarded as a reverse problem of MEMS analysis. Behavior equation group can be educed from analysis equations. This behavior equation group can be solved using any solution algorithm of non-linear equation group. Newton Iteration Method based on sensitivity is adopted. Comparing with Genetic Optimization Algorithm (GA) , computational workload of DSA is greatly decreased.
Authors: V.S. Mikhalenkov, Pekka J. Hautojärvi, F. Plazaola
Authors: Guo Ming Zhu, Chao Lu, Yong Lin Kang, Lu Feng Gao
Abstract: The evolution of precipitates size distribution of Ti-IF steel during annealing process has been investigated by simulating different continuous annealing (CA) and batch annealing (BA) treatments. The size and distributions of the precipitates (TiC in particular) are obtained by TEM observation and measured image analysis. They are then fitted by log-normally distribution and a model demonstrating the relationships of particle size distribution with annealing process parameters has been developed and validated by experiment results. The fine TiC precipitates (< 30 nm) vary after different annealing treatments. The effects of annealing temperature and holding time on the evolution of TiC particle size distribution are discussed.
Authors: Paul J. Timans
Abstract: Radiant energy sources enable rapid and controllable thermal processing of wafers with closed-loop control of wafer temperature. However the use of energy sources that are not in thermal equilibrium with the wafers makes the heating process sensitive to the optical properties of the wafers. In particular, patterns on wafer surfaces can cause temperature non-uniformity at length scales where lateral thermal conduction cannot smooth out the effect. Such “pattern effects” are even more significant for advanced processing techniques like millisecond annealing and pulsed laser annealing, because of the extremely large heating powers employed. The issue of pattern effects was recognized early on in the development of radiant heating technology, but has recently become a critical issue for process control. Despite the challenges, many counter-measures can be deployed to minimize pattern effects, including modifications to the wafer design, changes in processing recipe and equipment configuration. Such solutions have enabled the use of radiant heating for even the most demanding device fabrication applications.
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