Papers by Keyword: Austenite

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Authors: Marton Benke, Valéria Mertinger, Ferenc Tranta
Abstract: A group of austenitic steels exhibit high deformability and strength due to TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) and/or TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP). The phase transformations of the TRIP and TWIP steels have been examined in details in many FeMnX alloy systems (X: Ni, Al, Si). However, less attention was given to the FeMn(Cr) alloys. The γ ↔ ε transformations in the austenitic FeMn(Cr) alloys have been examined during heat cycling by in situ optical microscopy and DSC measurements.
Authors: Yuan Yuan Cui, Yun Fei Jia, Fu Zhen Xuan
Abstract: The cyclic deformation behavior of the austenite and ferrite phase in an austenite-ferrite duplex stainless steel was studied by using the load-controlled cyclic nanoindentation approach. The results showed that the maximum penetration depth onto both austenite and ferrite phases increased continuously while the rate decreased gradually and finally reached to a constant during the repeated indentation. Both transient state and quasi-steady state were observed for the penetration depth per cycle on both of the austenite and ferrite phases with the increased cycles. By contrast, both the penetration depth and rate per cycle into the austenite phase were larger than those into the ferrite phase. This was ascribed to the stress-induced densification in the austenite and ferrite phases and strain-induced transformed martensite in the austenite phase.
Authors: Mahesh C. Somani, L. Pentti Karjalainen
Abstract: In recent past, a linear regression model to predict the activation energy (Qrex) and kinetics of static recrystallisation for hot-deformed austenite was developed based on stress relaxation test results of over 40 different carbon steels. The model is able to predict satisfactorily the static recrystallisation (SRX) kinetics of common carbon steel grades (including microalloyed steels) and also several special steel grades. In this study, the main effects of seven alloying elements, viz., C, Mn, Cr, Ni, Mo, Nb and V, on the activation energy of recrystallisation were further examined by using eight experimental steels based on an orthogonal Taguchi L8 matrix. All steels contained constant additions of B, Ti and Si. Even though originally intended for studies on phase transformation characteristics and hardenability under direct quenching conditions, the L8 matrix steels were suitably employed for further validation of the SRX regression model. In addition, the SRX characteristics and kinetics of a set of new steel compositions including C-Mn, C-Mn-Nb and C-Mn-Nb-Ti types were examined in the light of model equations, which further confirm the suitability of the regression model.
Authors: Masaaki Igarashi, Koji Moriguchi, Seiichi Muneki, Fujio Abe, Yasuharu Shirai
Abstract: Creep deformation mechanism of the steels with a different matrix, α (ferrite), α’ (martensite) and γ (austenite), and precipitates such as MX and M23C6 has been analyzed using positron annihilation lifetime measurement. The positron annihilation lifetime has been found to be a very useful tool for evaluating the characteristic creep damage of the steels with different microstructure and the corresponding microstructural evolution during creep deformation. The creep deformation process of the α steel is heterogeneous, while the α’+M23C6 steel exhibits gradual changes in the creep rate in both transient and acceleration creep regions with the largest off-set strain, implying the homogeneous creep deformation. The α’+M23C6+ MX steel is in between the α and α’+M23C6 steels. The homogeneous creep deformation takes place in the γ steel.
Authors: Manabu Kubota, Kohsaku Ushioda, Goro Miyamoto, Tadashi Furuhara
Abstract: The recrystallization behavior of hot-deformed austenite of 0.55% C low alloy steels at 900, 850 and 800°C was investigated by a conventional double-hit compression test and a new method which reconstructs the parent austenite orientation map from an EBSD (electron backscattering diffraction) orientation map of daughter lath martensite. The new method can clearly reconstruct the parent austenite structure at high temperature from the daughter lath martensite structure and we can obtain the information on crystal orientation of the work-hardened austenite. It was revealed that recrystallization of austenite at 800 °C is significantly retarded by the addition of 0.1% V. The strong texture of <110> parallel to the compression direction develops just after the hot-deformation, but this texture becomes weaker as the recrystallization progresses. By applying the reconstruction method, it becomes possible to evaluate various phenomena related to the hot-deformation of austenite
Authors: V.I. Savran, Y. van Leeuwen, Dave N. Hanlon, Jilt Sietsma
Abstract: The first step in the heat-treatment processes for a vast majority of commercial steels is austenitization. There is much less research put in this field comparing to the cooling transformation, but the interest is continuously increasing especially in view of the development of TRIP and Dual-phase steels. The microstructural evolution during continuous heating experiments has been studied for a series of C-Mn steels with carbon contents in the range 0.35-0.45 wt. % using optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy. It is shown that the formation of the austenitic phase is possible in pearlitic as well as in ferritic regions, although in the former it proceeds at a much faster rate due to the shorter diffusion distances. Thus a considerable overlap in time of the ferriteto- austenite and the pearlite-to-austenite transformations is likely to occur. Another observation that was made during the experiments is that depending on the heating rate, the pearlite-to-austenite transformation can proceed in either one or two steps. At low heating rates (0.05 °C/s) ferrite and cementite plates transform simultaneously. At higher heating rates (20 °C/s) it is a two-step process: first ferrite transforms to austenite within pearlite grains and then the dissolution of the cementite lamellae takes place.
Authors: S.H. Khan, Aamer Nusair Khan
Abstract: Ultrasonic testing has a strong application in defect detection. An efficient tool for characterizing and life assessment of material structure and components by nondestructive ultrasonic velocity was developed about thirty years ago. Cold rolling results in increase in strength and hardness. The work discussed here is to study quantitative ultrasonic longitudinal velocity for characterizing a change in microstructure due to cold rolling in austenitic stainless steel samples. Samples were cold rolled upto 80 percent in 10 percent step. It was found that the use of velocity measurements is a useful quantitative and non-destructive tool for characterizing amount of cold rolled austenitic stainless steel.
Authors: David San Martín, Niels H. van Dijk, Yuriy Yagodzinskyy, Ekkes Brück, Sybrand van der Zwaag
Abstract: Maraging steels show an excellent combination of high strength and ductility, which makes them very attractive in a large variety of potential applications. The present work is concerned with the main factors influencing the stability of metastable austenite in such a steel. At subzero temperatures a large variation in the isothermal transformation behaviour of austenite to martensite has been observed. Factors such as the austenite grain size and the interstitial content in solid solution are known to influence austenite stability and, therefore, the martensitic transformation. In this steel, the addition of titanium results in carbonitride precipitation. These precipitates play an indirect but important role in the stability of austenite by means of removing interstitials from the solid solution and by inhibiting an austenite grain growth. The combination of techniques such as X-ray diffraction, magnetisation measurements, three-dimensional neutron depolarisation, and internal friction measurements enables a complete characterisation of the transformation. A step towards understanding the factors responsible for the variation in the behaviour observed is the main contribution of this work.
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