Papers by Keyword: Austenite Grain Size

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Authors: Matthias Militzer, Thomas Garcin, Warren J. Poole
Abstract: Laser ultrasonics for metallurgy (LUMet) is an innovative sensor technology for in-situ measurement of microstructure evolution during thermomechanical processing. This unique sensor has been attached to a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator for dedicated laboratory studies during processing of steel, aluminum, magnesium and titanium samples. Advanced processing software has been developed for the measurement of grain size and texture evolution from laser ultrasonic signals. Results of austenite grain growth measurements in low carbon steels will be described to demonstrate the capabilities of the LUMet technique. Further, applications of the system to measure recrystallization of ferrite and austenite formation during intercritical annealing simulations of dual phase steels will be presented. The ability to rapidly acquire data both during a single test and for multiple conditions over a range of conditions from different samples has important implications on expediting process modelling and alloy design. Although certain limitations exist, the LUMet technique offers a very reliable characterization platform with a number of potential applications in metallurgical process engineering.
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Authors: Qing Qiang He, Jia Sun, Jun You Zhao, Li Jian Xu, Cui Cui Li
Abstract: In hot metal forming processes, the material is subjected to the thermo-mechanical processing. A fully three dimensional thermo-mechanically coupled FEM-simulation of an eleven pass hot rough rolling process of H-beam has been performed. Microstructure evolution equations available in literatures were incorporated into the commercial FE solver ABAQUS/Explicit, through user defined subroutine VUMAT, to simulate the microstructure evolution. Since it’s impractical to obtain the austenite grain size distribution in the beam blank during industrial hot rolling, the calculated rolling loads are compared with the mills loads instead of grain size comparison between the predicted average value and the real ones.
297
Authors: Hong Tao Zhang, Ganyun Pang, Rui Zhen Wang, Chengbin Liu
Abstract: In the production with thin slab casting a serious problem of insufficient grain refinement and microstructural inhomogeneity has been found. In this paper attention has been paid to the austenite grain size changes in thin slab of a high strength Nb microalloyed steel under as-cast conditions and after first rolling pass. For comparison, the conventional thick slab was also investigated. It was found that although as-cast thin slab shows a smaller average austenite grain size than that of as cast thick slab; the latter after reheating shows a much finer average austenite grain size. The first rolling pass at high temperature and with heavy reduction causes rapid recrystallization that contributes to austenite grain refinement.
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Authors: Xiang Wei Kong, Tian Zhong Sui, Zhi Yong Hu
Abstract: The effect of hot deformation behavior on austenite grain size refinement of low carbon multi-microalloyed steel was investigated. The morphology of austenite grains was revealed by thermal etching and observed using optical microscope. The results showed that single pass compression can only marginally refine austenite grain size by dynamic recrystallization, even under severe plastic deformation. However, when the specimens were held for a while after hot deformation, the fine austenite grain size can be obtained due to static recrystallization behavior.
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Authors: Qing Yun Sha, Li Feng Qiao, Rong Jie Xu, Guo Jian Huang, Zu Qing Sun
Abstract: Comparison of grain growth of fine-grained and coarse-grained austenite in a Nb-V-Ti microalloyed steel during reheating or equalization at the same temperature was investigated using cold-charging and hot-charging specimens respectively in this study. The results show that the different grain growth behavior appears in fine-grained and coarse-grained austenite. The uniform grain growth and lower growth rate at reheating temperature studied was found in fine-grained austenite, while partial grain growth and higher growth rate was present in coarse-grained austenite. During reheating or equalization, the slow growth rate in fine-grained austenite may be contributed to stronger pinning force of fine precipitates while higher grain growth rate in coarse-grained austenite were believed to the result of lager size difference among part of grains. Grain coarsening occurs in fine-grained austenite as result of precipitate unpinning at extending holding time, but coarse-grained austenite remained wide size distribution at the same condition and this should not be considered as grain coarsening. coarse-grained austenite remained wide size distribution at the
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Authors: Ji Lin Chen, Shi Peng Ruan, Li Jun Wang, Jin Po Zhai, Chao Liu
Abstract: The effects of austenite grain size on hardenability and impact toughness were investigated. The results show that: Since the beginning of the two-phase region with quenching temperature, the austenite grain size from the initial 4+6 mixed crystal at 740°C, and gradually increased to 10 at 860°C; Austenite grain size and hardenability was directly proportional to the austenite grain size increased from 8μm to 36μm, the biggest change is the hardness 10HRC; Austenite grain size and impact toughness is linear, with the decrease of grain size, the impact energy increases linearly, and the austenite grain size and impact toughness curve fitting. Comprehensive analysis for ensuring the hardenability of cold heading steels should be considered optimal matching of material strength and plasticity.
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Authors: Seok Jae Lee, Young Kook Lee
Abstract: There are many empirical equations for predicting martensite start temperature (Ms) and the kinetics models of martensitic transformation of plain carbon and low alloy steels. The Ms temperature equations are only dependent upon the chemistry, while the martensite transformation kinetics models are based on the degree of undercooling below Ms temperature. However, the prior austenite grain size (AGS) is also expected to influence both Ms temperature and martensite transformation kinetics as it does in diffusive transformations. In this study, herefore, both Ms temperature and martensite transformation kinetics of a low alloy steel with different austenite grain sizes were investigated using a dilatometer. The new Ms equation and martensite transformation kinetics model including the AGS effect are proposed.
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Authors: Zhi Xia Qiao, Dan Tian Zhang, Yong Chang Liu, Ze Sheng Yan
Abstract: Any heat treatment technology must begin with the process of austenization, during which the holding time at austenite region is one of the critical parameters. The effect of austenization treatment holding time on the martensitic transformation in the 30CrNi3MoV ultra-high-strength steel was investigated by means of dilatometric measurements and microstructural observations. The results showed that extending the holding time at 900 oC won’t cause obvious coarsening of austenite grains due to the dragging effect of vanadium solute atoms adsorbed at austenite grain boundaries. Martensite microstructures obtained in the 30CrNi3MoV samples that were heat treated with different holding time varied a little. The austenization holding time has obvious influence on the Ms of the 30CrNi3MoV steel, because it simultaneously affect the size of prior austenite grains and the configuration of dislocation defects.
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Authors: Zhi Xia Qiao, Dan Tian Zhang, Yong Chang Liu, Ze Sheng Yan
Abstract: The effect of austenization treatment temperature on the martensitic transformation in the 30CrNi3MoV ultra-high-strength steel was investigated by means of dilatometric measurements and microstructural observations. The results showed that the coarsening temperature of austenite grains in the 30CrNi3MoV steel is raised to about 1000°C due to the inhibition to the migration of austenite grain boundaries, not only by the fine and disperse vanadium carbides, but also by the solute atoms adsorbed near the boundaries. The martensite obtained in 30CrNi3MoV samples with different austenization temperatures varied in the structural constituent, as well as in the size. The martensite microstructures obtained in the samples austenized at relatively low temperatures were composed of both lath martensite and acicular martensite and they are small in size. Yet the microstructures in the 30CrNi3MoV samples with relatively high austenization temperatures were occupied mostly by coarse lath martensite. For the 30CrNi3MoV steel, the austenization heating temperature should be kept below 1000°C in order to achieve the optimum mechanical property.
1797
Authors: Xin Jie Di, Dan Xu, Yong Chang Liu
Abstract: The microstructure and carbide precipitate of simulated coarse grain heat affected zone(CGHAZ) in modified high Cr ferritic heat-resistant steel at different cooling rates have been investigated by means of thermal simulator, optical microscope, SEM and TEM . It was found that the microstructure of CGHAZ of testing steel was mainly lath martensite and δ-ferrite under the different welding thermal cycles. However, the prior austenite grain size reduced with increasing the cooling rate. Furthermore, with increasing the cooling rate, the amount of carbide precipitate inside laths of martensite increased, and the size and morphology of precipitates have changed from elongated and coarse to needlelike and fine.
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